3 notes - Simple Rules for the Solubility of Salts in Water...

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What does "dissolve' mean? Weak Electrolytes: substances that produce relatively few ions in H2O ex. weak acid Strong Electrolytes: dissolves readily in H20, boosts conductivity. Non-electrolytes: Substances that do not produce ions in H20. Acids: Arrhenius Acid: A substance that produces H+ ion when dissolved in H2O. HA-->H+(aq) + A-(aq) Strong acids dissociate almost 100% into H+ and Anion Strong Acids: HCl, HBr, HI, HNO3, H2SO4, HClO4 Hydrochloric acid, Hydrobromic acid, Hydroiodic acid, Nitric acid, Sulfuric acid, Perchloric acid 4.3 Concentration of solutions Expressed in Molarity(M): Moles of solute/L. of solution 4.4 Types of chemical reactions Precipitation: Mix 2 solutions, and a solid forms Acid-Base: Acid donates H+, Base donates OH-. Forms a water and a salt. Oxidation-Reduction: Oxidation is when an atom loses electrons, Reduction is when an atom gains electrons. *spectator ions: not changed in the reaction
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Unformatted text preview: Simple Rules for the Solubility of Salts in Water 1) Most nitrate (NO 3-) salts are soluble. 2) Most salts containing the alkali metal ions (Li + , Na + , K + , Cs + , Rb + ) and the ammonium ion (NH 4 + ) are soluble. 3) Most chloride, bromide, and iodide salts are soluble. Notable exceptions are salts containing the ions Ag + , Pb 2+ , and Hg 2 2+ . 4) Most sulfates salts are soluble. Notable exceptions are BaSO 4 , PbSO 4 , Hg 2 SO 4 , and CaSO 4 . 5) Most hydroxide salts are only slightly soluble. The important soluble hydroxides are NaOH and KOH. The compounds Ba(OH) 2 , Sr(OH) 2 , and Ca(OH) 2 are marginally soluble. 6) Most sulfide (S 2-), carbonate (CO 3 2-), chromate (CrO 4 2-), and phosphate (PO 4 3-) salts are only slightly soluble. Stoichiometry of Precipitation Reactions: *mL NaOH---> L NaOH---> moles NaOH---> mols HCl---> L HCl---> mL HCl...
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This note was uploaded on 06/22/2008 for the course CHM 1045 taught by Professor Robert during the Spring '08 term at Hillsborough.

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3 notes - Simple Rules for the Solubility of Salts in Water...

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