PLB143SorgumBicolor

PLB143SorgumBicolor - Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor): overview,...

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Sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor ): overview, value, origin and domestication Abstract Sorghum bicolor is an annual tall cereal grass from the Gramineae family, grown primarily for it’s grain throughout the tropics, subtropics, and warm temperate areas of the world. The Gramineae family contains between 500 and 650 genera with a total of about 10,000 species including rice, corn, wheat. The largest amount of sorghum is produced by United States, where it is predominantly used as fodder. India and Nigeria are the second largest producers of the crop and in these nations Sorghum is primarily used as a food grain. Sorghum is extensively used as grain, fodder, constructions material for brooms, syrup and alcoholic beverages. It is a hardy drought-resistant plant and grows even in drought conditions because of a fibrous root system and thick glossy leaves which prevent water loss. Although the exact location of origin is still under research, Sorghum bicolor is believed to have originated in Ethiopia 8000 BP. From there it spread to rest of Africa, Near East, India, China and later to US. Archaeological evidence, scientific research such as morphological studies and isozyme analysis have provided more insight into its origin, migration, evolution and domestication. However, in order to determine a definitive center of domestication further research will be required using latest technologies of genome sequencing. Introduction Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is tall, erect, cane like, coarse, cereal grass of the family Gramineae; a grass family. The Gramineae family contains between 500 and 650 genera with a total of about 10,000 species including rice, corn, wheat. The plant has much variability in growth characteristics. It is a summer annual with few cultivars being perennial. It varies in color from pale yellow to dark brown depending on the cultivar and has fibrous, spreading roots. It is somewhat similar in appearance to corn and has large branched clusters of grains; the individual cluster being 3-4mm in size (SANBI 2006). It is drought and heat tolerant because of the unusually extensive branching root system and is especially important in dry regions with low rainfalls (Doggett, 1988). Sorghum is a hardy plant and needs very little rainfall. Unlike other crops, Sorghum does not get affected by short periods of drought. Rain is needed for seed germination but even under adverse water conditions sorghum continues to produce kernels although the seeds are much smaller in size. It is an annual and has growth habits similar to that of corn. Sorghum is planted in rows and usually 50,000 to 300,000 seeds are planted per hectare. (Dahlberg 1995).
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Sorghum bicolor Sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor ) is an important cereal world-wide and it is the fifth most important cereal crop in the world after wheat (Triticum sp.), rice (Oryza sativa, Oryza glaberrima), maize (Zea mays), and barley (Hordeum vulgare) (Dahlberg 1995). It is a vitally important crop in Africa, Central America, and South Asia (Morden
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PLB143SorgumBicolor - Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor): overview,...

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