Psychology Study Guide Exam 2 - Study Guide Test 2 Chapter...

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Study Guide Test # 2 Chapter 2 Glial cells (glia)- what are their functions? Structural support for neurons, insulates neurons, supply nutrients to neurons, help remove waste material from neurons Neurons: what are sensory neurons? A nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system Receive, integrate and transmit information Sensory neurons: receives signals from outside the nervous system What are motor neurons? Motor neurons: carry information from the nervous system to muscles and glands What are interneurons? Interneurons: Communicate only with other neurons Largest number of neurons in humans Dendrites, cell body, axons, myelin sheath- what function do each serve? Dendrites: receive messages from other cells Cell body: cell’s life support system Axons: transmits messages away from the cell body to other neurons, or to muscles or glands Myelin sheath: fatty tissue encasing the fibers of many neurons, speeds up transmission of the neural signal What part of the neuron degenerates in multiple sclerosis (MS)? Myelin sheath What is an ion? Charged particles Positive: more electrons than protons Negative: more protons than electrons As rest, which side of the axon (inside or outside) is more positive? Outside What are action potentials? Action potentials: brief reversal in an axon’s electrical charge Outside becomes negative, inside positive
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The neural impulse Travels down the axon What is the fastest speed at which a human action potential travels? From 2 mph to 200 mph What is the refractory period? Refractory period: Brief period (1-2 milliseconds) after an action potential during which another action potential cannot occur What is all or none transmission? All or none transmission: Either the axon fires or it does not No big or small action potentials All same size How are action potentials started (summing of inhibitor and excitatory signals) What is a threshold? What are neurotransmitters? Neurotransmitters: Chemical messengers that traverse the synaptic gaps between neurons Synaptic vesicle: Small sacs that store neurotransmitter What are agonists? Agonists: a chemical that facilitates the action of a neurotransmitter What are antagonists? Antagonists: A chemical that blocks or inhibits the effects of a neurotransmitter What is a synapse? Synapse: The junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron Synaptic gap or cleft: tiny gap at the junction What are receptors?
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