Fluid and Electrolytes - Fluids & Electrolyte An Overview...

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CONFIDENTIAL ©2013 Chamberlain College of Nursing, LLC. All rights reserved. 0713ccnFluids & ElectrolyteAn OverviewQiana Ross, PhD(c), MSN, RNAcademic Success Coach • Chamberlain College of Nursing
FLUID ANDELECTROLYTEBALANCES
DISTRIBUTION OF BODY FLUIDSBody fluids are distributed in two distinctcompartments:1.Extracellular fluids[ECF] Which includes interstitial fliud &intravascular fluid2.Intracellular fluids[ICF]
COMPOSITION OF BODY FLUIDSThe fluids circulating throughout the body in extracellularand intracellular fluid spaces contain1.Electrolytes2.Minerals3.Cells
FLUID, ELCTROLYTE AND ACID-BASEIMBALANCES
FLIUD IMBALANCESThe five types of fluid imbalances that may occur are:
ETIOLOGY AND RISK FACTORS ofDEHYDRATIONSevere vomitingDiaphoresisTraumatic injuriesThird space fluid shifts[percardial, pleural,pertonial and joint cavities]FeverGatrointestinal suctionIleostomyFistulasBurnsHyperventilationDecreased ADH secretionsDiabetes insipidusAddison’s disease oradrenal crisisDiuretic phase of acuterenal failureUse of diureticsSIADH
CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONThirstMuscle weaknessDry mucus membrane; drycracked lips or furrowedtongueEyeballs soft and sunken(severe deficit)Apprehension ,restlessness, headache ,confusion, coma in severedeficitElevatedtemperatureTachycardia, weak threadypulsePeripheral vein filling> 5secondsPostural systolic BP falls>25mm Hg and diastolicfall> 20 mm Hg , withpulse increases > 30Narrowed pulse pressure,decreased CVP&PCWPFlattened neck veins insupine positionWeight lossOliguria(< 30 mlper hour)Decreased number andmoisture in stools
LABORATORY FINDINGS)
MANAGEMENTMild fluid volume loss can be corrected with oral fluidreplacement-ifclient tolerates solid foods advice to take 1200 ml to1500ml of oral fluids-if client takes only fluids, increase the total intake to 2500ml in 24 hours
Management of Hyperosmolar fluid volumedeficitAdministration ofhypotonic IV solutionIf the deficit has existed for more than 24 hours, avoidrapid correction of fluid
EXTRACELLULAR FLUID VOLUMEEXCESSECFVE is increased fluid retention in the intravasular andinterstitial spaces
ETIOLOGY AND RISK FACTORSHeart failureRenal disordersCirrhosis of liverIncreased ingestion of high sodium foodsExcessive amount of IV fluids containing sodiumElectrolyte free IV fluidsSIADH,Sepsisdecreased colloid osmotic pressurelymphatic and venous obstructionCushing’s syndrome & glucocorticoids

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Term
Spring
Professor
WilliamJ.Nolen
Tags
Sodium, Vomiting, Coma, extracellular fluid volume

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