Exam 2 SS part1 - Geo 302E Earth, Wind & Fire Partial...

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Partial Study Sheet – Exam 2 Spring, 2007 Unit III. Topic 5 Evolution of Earth Surface What are several different ways mountains form? A mountain is usually produced by the movement of lithospheric plates, either orogenic movement or epeirogenic movement. The co mpressional forces, isostatic uplift and intrusion of igneous matter forces surface rock upwards, creating a landform higher than the surrounding features. Some isolated mountains were formed by volcanos Fault-Block Mountains are created when large areas are widely broken up by faults creating large vertical displacements. This occurrence is fairly common. The uplifted blocks are block mountains or horsts . The intervening dropped blocks are termed graben : these can be small or form extensive rift valley systems. Where rock does not fault it folds, either symmetrically or asymmetrically. The up-folds are anticlines and the down-folds are synclines ; in asymmetric folding there may also be recumbent and overturned folds. Know the parts of a continent and what they represent: mountain belts shields: basement complex of deformed rock eroded to near sea level o shields are eroded mountain belts o isostatic readjustments stable platforms: basement covered by thin sedimentary rocks o Plateaus, mesas, buttes, pinnacles o Broad warps sedimentary basins If a mountain range is observed adjacent to a flat plain, what structure would you expect to find at the base of the mountain range? Escarpment? Fault scarp? Know continental crust is lighter than the mantle and “floats” Mountains have “roots” and as they erode, they are uplifted as a result of isostasy (buoyancy). Know the three types of faults (normal, thrust, strike slip) and how they move, plus some resulting landscape features (e.g. fault scarps, fault valleys, sag ponds)
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Fault scarps : a steep terrain slope or an apparent step in the ground Fault Valleys : Sag Ponds: a body of water, which forms as water collects in the lowest parts of the depression that forms between two strands of an active strike-slip fault. The relative motion of the two fault strands results in a stretching of the land between them, causing the land between them to sink. Rift Valleys:
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Exam 2 SS part1 - Geo 302E Earth, Wind & Fire Partial...

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