Exam 2 SS part2 - Partial Study Sheet for Exam 2 Geo 302E...

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Partial Study Sheet for Exam 2 Geo 302E Earth, Wind, Fire Spring 2007 Energy and Mineral Resource questions What are fossil fuels? Hydrocarbons What material do they form from? Remains of dead plants and animals (hydrogen and carbon) What happens to change the material into a fossil fuel? Exposure to heat and pressure in the earth's crust over hundreds of millions of years. What are source rocks, reservoirs, and traps? Source rocks : a rock rich in organic matter which, if heated sufficiently, will generate oil and gas. (Shale and limestones are typical source rocks) Reservoirs : A subsurface body of rock having sufficient porosity and permeability to store and transmit fluids. Sedimentary rocks are the most common reservoir rocks because they have more porosity than most igneous and metamorphic rocks and form under temperature conditions at which hydrocarbons can be preserved. Traps : A configuration of rocks suitable for containing hydrocarbons and sealed by a relatively impermeable formation through which hydrocarbons will not migrate. Traps are described as structural traps (in deformed strata such as folds and faults) or stratigraphic traps (in areas where rock types change, such as unconformities, pinch- outs and reefs). Know what types of structures/features form common traps. Anticline: Structural traps: A variety of sealed geologic structure capable of retaining hydrocarbons, such as a fault or a fold. Stratigraphic traps form where changes in rock type can retain hydrocarbons. Salt dome traps Reef trap What are some types of unconventional oil and gas?
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Gas: Shale Gas Tight Gas Coalbed Methane Oil: Shale Tar Sands/ Oil Sands Sometimes when oil and gas don’t migrate it could be a positive thing Natural Gas Sources o Coalbed Methane Rocky Mountain states Major contributer to new supplies o Barnett Shale North central Texas Natural gas from an ‘impermeable formation” Recovery technology advances: 1. Formation fracturing 2. Horizontal wells Alberta Oil Sands 174 billion bbl recoverable (10% recovery rate) U.S. Oil Shale Resources Mostly in Canada Didn’t really know an economic way to get it out – now they actually mine it Methane Hydrates - There is a huge amount, we just don’t know how to get it out - It has accumulated in many places In what depositional environments do coals form? Coal is a fossil fuel. It is a combustible, sedimentary, organic rock, which is composed mainly of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. It is formed from vegetation, which has been consolidated between other rock strata and altered by the combined effects of pressure and heat over millions of years to form coal seams. Coal forms from the remains of plants deposited as peat in swampy
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Exam 2 SS part2 - Partial Study Sheet for Exam 2 Geo 302E...

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