Final Study Guide - P315 Final Exam Study Guide Maddy Klein...

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P315 Final Exam Study Guide Maddy Klein Major Theories Erikson Infancy: Trust vs. Mistrust—sense of the environment and people in it o Attend to baby’s needs promptly o Safe, secure environment o Comfort and interaction Toddlers/Late Infancy: Autonomy vs. Shame/Doubt—sense of efficacy o Encourage independence, support children in doing things for themselves o Avoid shaming in self feeding, toileting, and dressing Early Childhood: Initiative vs. Guilt—confidence in taking leadership o Children use their perceptual, motor, cognitive, and language skills to make things happen o Exuberantly move into a wider social world on their own initiative o Initiative governed by conscience o Self-conscious emotions like pride, shame, embarrassment, and guilt are common at this stage initiative and enthusiasm may bring guilt, which lowers self-esteem o Celebrate children’s attempts at developing independence Middle Childhood: Industry vs. Inferiority o Industry- children become interested in how things are made and function o Learning to work on/accomplish tasks o Interests include doing things: projects, hobbies, mastering new skills o Parents who see their children’s efforts as mischief encourage inferiority Adolescence: Identity vs. Identity Confusion o Psychosocial moratorium o Experiment with different roles and personalities o Adolescents who cope with conflicting identities emerge with a new sense of self o Adolescents who do not successfully resolve the identity crisis suffer identity confusion Early Adulthood: Intimacy vs. Isolation o Intimacy- finding oneself while losing oneself in another person o Failure to achieve intimacy results in social isolation o Finding a balance between intimacy and commitment, and independence and freedom Middle Adulthood: Generativity vs. Stagnation
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P315 Final Exam Study Guide Maddy Klein o Generativity- desire to leave legacies for the next generation, through family/reproduction, work/volunteer activities Biological—maintaining physical health Parental—reproducing, grandparenting Work—continuing contributions Cultural—relevance, engagement, wisdom o Reaching and maintaining career satisfaction Late Adulthood: Integrity vs. Despair o Goal is to have developed an existential identity—an integrated sense of self strong enough to withstand physical deterioration o Life review—looking back at one’s life experiences, evaluating them, and interpreting/reinterpreting them o Positive resolution results from close ties with old friends, strong connections with family members Piaget Sensorimotor o Birth to age 2 o Connecting sensory experience with physical actions o Mental development characterized by progression in the infant’s ability to organize and coordinate sensations with physical movements and actions o Progress starts with little more than reflexive patterns and develops into complete sensorimotor patterns with a primitive system of symbols o Substages
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