Midterm Review

Midterm Review - The reasons of transformation in the...

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The reasons of transformation in the nature of ruling class: Shang/Zhou to Tang: no one term for“meritocrat” in ancient Chinese literally When Confucius talks of the junzi or when Mencius alludes to the xian (the "worthies"), they are talking about aspects of meritocrats, presumably using euphemistic locutions of the time. Though they are recognizing the same reality, xian was not a generally accepted class label then; nor was junzi. Aristocrats: Emperors and his family, the nobility, and powerful clans. Princes held military and government posts. Some of the same families which had been dominant in the ruling class during early period were still the core of the ruling class during this period. Hereditary privilege was seen in bureaucrats. As the feudalization stage waned, there were no more fiefs to be awarded anyway, since the Central Realm had all been parceled out and fierce aliens were hemming in the outer frontiers. Many different sorts of aristocrats holding down clerkly jobs at the Shang court, and also at the early Zhou court; it continues until Tang. Song: Meritocrats were people co-opted into the ruling class even though not so directly linked to the gods as the aristocrats.
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