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History_Review_(Revised)_ID - Ming Dynasty Zhu...

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Ming Dynasty λ Zhu YuanZhang: (shrewd, hardworking, and ruthless) *Taizu of the Ming Dynasty; first peasant emperor to unify China. *Organize the central and local government around unpaid service * Didn’t really trust the social officials, controlling officials and people with heavy punishments to ensure total obedience. (the purge of many officials – the nightmare of literati; had the Mencius edited to remove the part that implied curbing the authority of the ruler)) * Acted as his own chief executive, dealing directly with officials on every matter. * Forbade private foreign trade to enforce all exchanges to occur thro’ tribute system λ Wang Yangming: (challenged Zhu Xi’s understandings of metaphysics and the process of self-cultivation – challenge to orthodox Confucianism) * Believe in innate knowledge; school of the heart mind; t* * Thought that universal principles existed in every person’s mind. People could discover them by clearing their minds of obstructions such as material desires and allowing their inborn knowledge of the good to surface. λ Li Zhi * Took women as disciples. * Rethought the philosophical basis of feelings, passions, and the self, a trend clearly tied to developments in literature. * Saw little value in conforming to conventional patterns of behavior. Qing Dynasty λ Nurhaci * Creator of Manchu state. * The first emperor of the Qing Dynasty, creating the eight banners system. The shift from tribal toward bureaucratic organization was aided by the creation of a script for writing in Manchu. λ Kangxi * Fought the Russians. * Patronized Chinese literati and made efforts to induce scholars to join the government. * Gained familiarity with Chinese literati culture and also became intrigued by Western mathematics, science, and mechanical devices. λ Qianlong: * Youngzhen’s fourth son. * Longest emperor of the Qing. * Published over 42,000 poems under his name and freely inscribed his own poetry on hundreds of masterpieces of painting and calligraphy. * Concern with preserving Manchu identity. λ Lin Zexu: * Dispatched to Guangzhou to force foreign traders from bringing opium into China and the Chinese to stop smoking. * Threatened and bribing to force merchants to turn over opium. He even offered trading opium for tea at a ratio of one to five. A * Set rules that only traders who put up bonds and promised not to deal in opium would thereafter be allowed to trade at Guangzhou.
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* His action led the opium war. λ Yuan Shikai: * Leading general during Qing * Warlord during the ROC, became president of the new republic in 1912 due to his military power. * Declared himself an emperor but ended with his death. λ Zeng Guofan: * Put down the Taiping Rebellion, restoring stability of Qing. * Appalled by the threat the Taipings posed to the Confucian order, recruited peasants forming Xiang Army to serve under him.
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