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Test_4_Review_Spring_2008 - POLS 110 Introduction to U.S...

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POLS 110: Introduction to U.S. Politics REVIEW SHEET: TEST #4 Test Date: Monday, May 5 th GTAs: Kellee Kirkpatrick, Amber Dickinson, Whitney Court, Gail Rodriguez, Linsey Moddelmog Chapter 9 (Lowi, Ginsberg, and Shepsle) How do most citizens form their attitudes and opinions? How are they different from political ideology (liberalism and conservatism)? Combination of individuals’ characteristics and institutional, political, and govern- mental forces Where do we get our attitudes and opinions? What is socialization and what groups so- cialize us politically? Attitude: specific view about a particular issue, personality, or event Socialization: the processes through which underlying political beliefs and values are formed Groups: family, membership in social groups, education, and prevailing political condi- tions Ideology is not the only phenomenon that helps form our opinions. What else plays a role and how? Knowledge and informaiton Knowledgeable citizens are better able to evaluate new information and determine whether it is relevant to and consistent with their beliefs and opinions “marketplace of ideas” There are three ways that political scientists assert that the media exercise influence over politics. Explain the meaning of agenda-setting, priming and framing. Agenda setting: media sets the agenda for political discussion Framing: decide how political events and results are interpreted Priming: media coverage affects the way the public evaluates political leaders or candid- ates for office How do pollsters construct a random sample from a population of interest? Probability sampling: Assign each member of the population a number Table of random numbers/computerized random selection process Random digit dialing: computer random number generator is used to produce a list of as many numbers as needed Why are sample size, survey design and question wording important? Same sample is needed to represent a small population as to represent a large popula- tion Words used can impact answers Validity of survey results can also be adversely affected by poor question format What is the bandwagon effect? Polling results influence people to support the candidate marked as the probable victor
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Is US public opinion consistent over time? Yes Explain the concept of salience and its significance in studying media and public opinion? Salient interests: attitudes and views that are especially important to the individual hold- ing them Does the government pay attention to public opinion in policy-making? Yes Chapter 10 (Lowi, Ginsberg, and Shepsle) What roles do elections serve? (See the first 3 paragraphs of the chapter, pages 241- 242.) Allow opposing forces to compete against and even to replace current officeholders Institutions of legitimation and safety valves for social discontent Facilitate popular influence, promote leadership accountability, and offer groups in soci- ety a measure of protection form the abuse of governmental power What rules determine who can vote and how have these rules changed over time? (See
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