midterm review

midterm review - FINAL EXAM REVIEW LOCKE Tacit consent-you...

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FINAL EXAM REVIEW LOCKE Tacit consent--you give up certain rights by implied consent in order to be a part of society. In re- turn, you get some benefits. You get protection, the right to ownership, benefits of government in an ordered society. You give up freedoms associated with a state of nature. Reason--the mind is devoid of anything--we take it in through our senses and the mind acts as a filter to process that information State of war--state of "enmity and destruction" brought about by one person's pre-meditated at- tempts upon another's life. Law of self-preservation says a person may kill another person in self-defense Property--each person owns their body, labor that they perform with that body. When an indi- vidual adds their own labor, their own property, to a foreign object or good, that object becomes their own (ex: picking an apple) Natural rights: No one can claim rights b/c of Adam--he did not have authority over the world and his heirs also did not have this authority Natural law-how people ought to behave. It is a law of reason and we learn what it is through the use of reason DESCARTES We are endowed with certain innate concepts “I think, therefore I am”--by think he means doubt. ..if he doubts, then something or someone must be doing it, and therefore he exists Provisional moral code: Act according to where you are. MAXIMS: *obey the laws and customs of your country *be as firm and decisive in your actions *Always try to master yourself rather than fortune. Change your desires rather than the world. *Devote your life to cultivating reason and advancing as far as you can with the knowledge of the truth, following the method *Methodological doubt What he doubts: *Information arrived at through the senses *Information gained through memory *All reasoning or conclusions arrived at through reasoning Certain beliefs are outside the scope of the method, like: *revealed truths accepted by religious believers *basic ethical maxims about what is “probably the best” way of conducting his life *Res extensa (physical world)/res cogitans (internal world): the thinking being ROUSSEAU *Pity: all humans, even in primitive times, possessed a basic drive to care for themselves and a natural disposition to compassion *Inequality: fundamental feature of human society Desire to have value in the eyes of others undermines personal integrity and authenticity
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Society is marked by interdependence, hierarchy, and inequality *State of nature: primitive condition without law or morality; as society developed, division of labor and private property required the human race to adopt institutions of law Women: men depend on them because they desire them U.S. DOCUMENTS *Separation of powers: state is divided into branches; each estate has separate and independent powers and areas of responsibility (Exec, leg, jud) Protects democracy and forestalls tyranny *Unalienable rights: life, liberty, pursuit of happiness (property. ..stolen from Locke) *States’ rights: should be independent of federal government in some areas
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This note was uploaded on 06/23/2008 for the course HWC 205 taught by Professor Cottensprecklemeyer during the Spring '08 term at Baker KS.

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midterm review - FINAL EXAM REVIEW LOCKE Tacit consent-you...

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