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Behavioral Interventions Based on the Theory of Planned BehaviorIcek AjzenBrief Description of the Theory of Planned BehaviorAccording to the theory, human behavior is guided by three kinds of considerations: beliefsabout the likely outcomes of the behavior and the evaluations of these outcomes (behavioralbeliefs), beliefs about the normative expectations of others and motivation to comply with theseexpectations (normative beliefs), and beliefs about the presence of factors that may facilitate orimpede performance of the behavior and the perceived power of these factors (control beliefs). In their respective aggregates, behavioral beliefs produce a favorable or unfavorable attitudetoward the behavior; normative beliefs result in perceived social pressure or subjective norm;and control beliefs give rise to perceived behavioral control. In combination, attitude toward thebehavior, subjective norm, and perception of behavioral control lead to the formation of abehavioral intention. As a general rule, the more favorable the attitude and subjective norm, andthe greater the perceived control, the stronger should be the person’s intention to perform thebehavior in question. Finally, given a sufficient degree of actualcontrol over the behavior,people are expected to carry out their intentions when the opportunity arises. Intention is thusassumed to be the immediate antecedent of behavior. However, because many behaviors posedifficulties of execution that may limit volitional control, it is useful to consider perceivedbehavioral control in addition to intention. To the extent that perceived behavioral control isveridical, it can serve as a proxy for actual control and contribute to the prediction of thebehavior in question. The following figure is a schematic representation of the theory.
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