5_Health Care Provision - Social Issues in Contemporary...

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    Social Issues  in  Contemporary China Social Welfare Service  Provision: Health Care
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    Health Care System: Pre-Reform After Mao Tse-tung and the Chinese Communist  Party took control of China in 1949, they created a  health care system that was typical of 20th-century  communist societies that are now largely extinct.  However, China added some unique features to meet  the needs of its huge peasant population and to take  advantage of ancient, indigenous medical practices.  The government owned, funded, and ran all  hospitals, from large, specialized facilities (often  serving communist cadres) in urban areas to small  township clinics in the countryside. The private  practice of medicine and private ownership of health  facilities disappeared. Physicians were employees of  the state. 
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    Health Care System: Pre-Reform In rural areas, the Commune, the critical institution in rural life.  Communes owned the land, organized its  cultivation, distributed its harvest, and supplied  social services, including health care, which was  provided through the Cooperative Medical System.  “barefoot doctors”: practitioners who had only  basic health care training, who staffed mostly  village and township health centers, that were part  of the  Cooperative Medical System 
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    Health Care System: Pre-Reform From 1952 to 1982, the Chinese health  care system achieved enormous  improvements in health and health care.    Infant mortality fell from 200 to 34 per 1000  live births life expectancy increased from about 35 to  68 years.
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    Achievement: Improvement in Life  Expectancy  Source: Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: The 2006 Revision 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 1950- 1955 1955- 1960 1960- 1965 1965- 1970 1970- 1975 1975- 1980 1980- 1985 1985- 1990 1990- 1995 1995- 2000 2000- 2005 2005- 2010 Life Expectancy at Birth-Male(years) Life Expectancy at Birth-Female(years)
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    Achievement: Improvement in Infant  Mortality Source: Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: The 2006 Revision 0 50 100 150 200 250 1950- 1955 1955- 1960 1960- 1965 1965- 1970 1970- 1975 1975- 1980 1980- 1985 1985- 1990 1990- 1995 1995- 2000 2000- 2005 2005- 2010 Infant Mortality Rate (per thousand birth)
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    Health Care System: Pre-Reform These improvements also reflected major  investments in public health through a highly  centralized governmental agency Achieved major gains in controlling infectious  diseases through immunization and other classic  public health measures, such as improved  sanitation and the control of disease vectors,  including mosquitoes  By the beginning of the 1980s, China was 
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