G - Lecture 2 Agriculture Market institutions impt. to have...

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Lecture 2 – Agriculture Differences in the World Today and in A.D. 1492 Technology Metal tools (eg. steel, guns, military tools) in Eurasia, most of Africa (esp. N Africa); only starting to come into Andes as bronze- this alone guarantees Eurasia will conquer New World; N/ Central America, S Africa, Australia, New Guinea, etc. all only had stone/wood tools Political Differences Some had state govts vs. others only tribes; king central govt, bureaucrats, social inequality- again states, empires mostly in Eurasia; Andes (Incan Empire), Africa? Only had tribes? States only starting to come into W? Africa?? Chiefdoms in E US, SW? In Central/S America, parts of sub-saharan Africa; W N America/Arctic/S Sth America Differences in Writing Can write down details; learn from past etc; only writing in Eurasia, China, Japan, (N) Africa, small area in Mexico advantage for these. Agriculture made possible high pop; permanent cities/settlements/villages etc and technology; in Eurasia, much of Africa, S/Central America, etc Did NOT have ag (instead: nomadic cultures): N Eurasia, N N Am (Arctic), S America, Sub- Saharan Africa?; W US; Australia Iron sharper, harder, more effective than bronze- thus more valuable; bronze too fragile for some uses eg. spades Wheeled land transport in Eurasia, N America- but not in New World/Australia; boats- Eurasia, China (best) = ocean-going; Polynesian? Had ocean-going canoes? African didn’t have any of these? 1492- year Christopher Columbus discovered New World- year EPNs really began grand-scale expansion What Happened Until 11,000 BC? Human species arose ~6 bil years ago in Africa- humans spread fr. AF to Eurasia ~ 2 bil yrs ago- didn’t get to Australia/New Guinea til ? yrs ago, by 12,000 BC ppl in every continent except Antarctica ~11,000 BC everyone ~equal status- no one had writing/ag/great wealth/technology/govt
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G - Lecture 2 Agriculture Market institutions impt. to have...

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