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geog6_6 - Review from last time Largest lang fam of Europe...

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Review from last time Largest lang fam of Europe- IndoEPN plus Finnish (Finno-Euraic?), Hungarian, Estonian; SW Asia: Hebrew, Arabic, Aramaic Crops of W Eurasian ag- almost all orig from Fertile Crescent Things spread by farming/pastoralists… Despite huge head start on everything significant- ag, state govt, writing- Mid E didn’t take over the world Expansion of Russian state E to Pacific & Alaska Complexities of Islam- not monotlithic or homogeneous 05/12/08 Lecture Notes - CHINA World’s lgst pop; 3 rd -largest geographically behind Russia & Canada; one of oldest centers of ag, civ after Fert Cresc; one of world’s 3 origins of writing (along w/Fert Cres, MX); model for rest of Asia(?), esp SE Asia (Malaysia, Thailand, Taiwan? Etc), and some of India Incl widest, highest plateau- Tibetan plateau- has highest mtn- Mt Everest (between Chinese Tibet & Napal); Yellow River in N & Yangtze River in S – very long; ranges from glaciers to (tropical & seasonal?) rainforests; some pat of it has more rain than other part? Yellow & Yangtze River both E-W, flow parallel to each other; were joined early ~2000 yrs ago with a canal Smooth coastline- no big peninsulas- no big islands (major ones: Taiwan, Hainan); core area- center of Chinese Empire- not divided up by mtns unlike Europe (Alps etc); China thus geographically a block in one piece w/only minor islands/mtn ranges/peninsulas Biogeography Most of China belongs to Palearctic reg; but S part belongs to Oriental reg- stretches from S China, all SE Asia, to India N of Himalayas; tropical; rich in species – prob richest in world for tree species- but not distinctive- shares many families w/Ethiopian reg, shares some w/Arctic?, shares a few bird species w/Australian Reason- easy to access- no barriers for entry/exit btwn this region & other regions eg Aus reg, Ethiopian reg etc- so only one family of birds unique to this Oriental region- fairy bluebirds; mammal fams confined to Oriental reg- flying lemurs, tree shrews, tarsiers, spiny dormice, hairy hedgehogs (these animals NOT on exam) Like Palearctic/Ethiopian reg, Oriental reg did keep its big mammals- presumably b/c these big mammals have coexisted w/humans for mils of yrs when civ est’d; so these big mammals incl: elephant, taper, 3 species of rhino, bear, big wild cattle, deer, lions, tigers, cheetahs- all of these went distinct (extinct?) to New World PEOPLE Incl Native Americans who derive from Asia; Asian ppl have straight black hair, only develop gray/white hair when older; faces flatter, cheekbones harder than others; epicanthic fold on eyes that gives Asian eyes distinctive appearance; eyelids padded with more fat than usual; function of both of these- protection from cold- these features much less marked in S(E) Asians where not as cold Difference in physical appearance in N and S Chinese- N more similar to Siberians, Jap, Koreans, Native Americans; S Chinese usu shorter, resemble more tropical SE Asians eg Vietnamese, Indonesians, Filipinos, have less of epicanthic fold, eyelid fat etc; also diff in teeth, cuspids? etc-
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