Final Study Guide

Final Study Guide - Geography 5: People and Earth's...

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Geography 5: People and Earth’s Ecosystems Final Exam Review Sheet Social Perspectives on Population 1. Malthusianism and Neo-Malthusianism Perspectives a. Thomas Malthus (1766-1834)- wrote An Essay on the Principle of Population (1798) i. ii. Population expands geometrically vs. food expands only arithmetically => tension between these two forces=> natural “checks” on population iii. Malthus’ solution: abstinence, moral restraint b. Malthus’ “Natural Law” of Population i. Overpopulation Poverty ii. A segment of every human population seemed relegated to poverty… he blamed poverty on poor themselves: if poor didn’t change their behavior (by having less kids), they were irrational and at fault iii. Saw them as “sluggish and adverse to labor” c. England’s Poor Laws i. Malthus opposed to England’s “Poor Laws” (welfare benefits for poor) b/c he felt they would only serve to perpetuate overpopulation ii. If poor didn’t feel misery, they had no incentive to change behavior iii. Advocated benign neglect; moral restraint; abstinence (adopt “middle-class values”) d. Neo-Malthusianism i. Holds many of same ideas, but expands ideas to envt’l destruction ii. Overpop iii. However, it views overpop as solved by: 1) Access to birth control/ sterilization, 2) Education rather than moral restraint (more realistic) iv. Some Neo-Malthusians still advocate benign neglect e. Paul Ehrlich (1932-present) i. Wrote much about impacts of human pop growth on the envt; introduced pop growth as an envt’l problem ii. Wrote The Population Bomb (1960) 1. Repeated Malthusian catastrophe argument that pop growth will outpace agricultural growth unless controlled 2. Predicted that “in 1970s-80s, hundreds of millions of people will starve to death” due to overpop 3. I = P x A x T : where I = envt’l impact; P = population; A = affluence; T = technology
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4. Founded Zero Population Growth - org that informs general public, legislators re: dangers/problems of overpop; plus Federation for American Immigration Reform- advocates for a significant immigration reduction iii. Wrote The Population Explosion (1990) w/wife Anne 1. “Arresting pop growth should be 2 nd in importance only to avoiding nuclear war on humanity’s agenda” 2. Neo-Malthusianism; 2 Solutions : 1) Birth Rate Solution (birth control, sterilization, education); 2) Death Rate Solution (famine, starvation , etc.) 3. Ehrlichs argue death solution most likely to happen b/c humanity doesn’t get its act together f. Garrett Hardin (1915-2003) i. Wrote? “ Tragedy of the Commons ” (1968)- argues people are selfish, will exploit “the commons” (common, shared resources) at the expense of others- indv. benefit vs. common cost ii. Wrote/put forth idea of “ Lifeboat Ethics ”- justifies benign neglect as solution 2. The Cornucopian View a.
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This note was uploaded on 06/24/2008 for the course GEOG 6 taught by Professor Diamond during the Spring '08 term at UCLA.

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Final Study Guide - Geography 5: People and Earth's...

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