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Chapter 10 Outline

Chapter 10 Outline - Chapter 10 Global Climate Systems...

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Chapter 10: Global Climate Systems Introduction Climate- pattern of weather over many yrs, incl’g its variability/extremes; global-scale links in earth- atmos-ocean sys; climates so diverse, no 2 places on Earth experience the same climatic conditions; Earth vast collection of microclimates, tho similarities among local climates=>grping into climatic regs Popular climate classification sys by Wladimir Köppen; climate patterns changing extremely rapidly compared to past, esp in polar regs of Arctic, Antarctic Earth’s Climate System and Its Classification Climatology - study of climate- analysis of long-term wthr patterns over time/space to find areas of similar wthr statistics - climatic regions ; thse at core of climate classification; climates influence ecosystems - natural, self-regulating communites of plants/animals in thr nonliving envt:… On land, basic climatic regs determine thr location; these regs- biomes - incl forest, grassland, savanna, tundra, desert; associated w/plant, soil, animal communities; ecosys’s in constant state of adaptation/ resoponse due to periodic change of climate cycs (never really stable) Climate Components: Insolation, Temperature, Pressure, Air Masses, and Precipitation Above 4 things= main elements of climate; insolation - energy input for climate sys, tht varies w/lat; daylength/ temp patterns vary daily/seasonally- main controls of temp= lat, altitude, land-water heating diffs, cloud cover; temp variations due to atmos pressure , global wind sys’s… Plus location/phys characteristics of air masses ; also moisture (=precipitation), transferred thru Earth’s climate sys via hydrologic cyc w/much latent heat energy; moisture patterns=key climte control factor- predicted by avg temps/daylngth; mst Earth’s desert regs= lands dominated by subtrop high-press cells Most consistently wet climates round equator in Amazon reg of S America, Congo reg of Africa, Indonesia, SE Asia: all influenced by equat’l low press & ITCZ; temp+ precip=>general climate types; temp + precip patterns + other wthr factors=>ley to climate classification Classification of Climatic Regions Classification - process of grping data/phenomena in related categories; no uniform class’n sys; climate class’n based on causative factors= genetic classification ; one baed on statistical data of observed effects= empirical classification ; genetic class’ns explain climates in terms of: Net radiation/thermal regimes/air mass dominance over reg; empirical ones descriptive, single out selected wthr data; one empirical class’n sys by C. W. Thornthwaite (1948) identified moisture regs using aspects of water-budget approach, vegetation types; also widely used Koppen sys Classification Categories Boundaries/spatial categories in class’n sys’s really= transition zones of gradl change; trends, overall patterns of bndry lines more impt than thr precise placement; main categories here: temp/precip measurements, moisture efficiency; 6 basic climate categories /thr reg’l types: o Tropical
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