Lecture Notes

Lecture Notes - Lecture Notes 01/08/07 Early Civilization...

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Lecture Notes  01/08/07 Early Civilization Civilization- advanced social, pol structure in which indvs come together to form cohesive unit- 1 st arises in form of city- city, ci both fr “civis” – citizen Civ originates in Mesopotamia- even tho it’s not in “W”- also civ in Egypt (1 st 2 civs) Mesopotamia, Egypt Europe (1 st advanced EPN civ w/distinct features, eg philosophy, democracy); Greece contributed much to Roman civ Rels of W mainly- Christianity, Judaism; democracy (Greece), republicanism (Rome=> 2 main pol ideas …. 01/10/07 Civ linked w/city- fixed territorial bndrys + systemization of rel, distinct social classes, indv economic specialization, dvlpmt of arts & thr incorporation to public sector (eg architecture, sculptures), literacy 4 th millennium BC- Mesopotamia (civ?) Why in Mesopotamia?- geography - rise of ag=>settled lifestyle; Meso is fertile land- fertile crescent; “Mesopotamia”= land btwn 2 rivers- Tigris, Euphrates N Mesopotamia- Akkad ; S Meso- Sumer ; both=>Babylonia afer pol power became centered in Babylon; Sumer- 3500 BC, 1 st cities= Ur, Uruk, Lagash- mud-brick bldgs surrounded by walls, moats Meso- little stone, timber; so bricks main took; each main city= city-state- separate main pol entity; outside city walls= ag lands of ppl- sustained city- irrigated by Tigris, Euphrates; most citizens= Pol org - Sumer- definite pol org & hierarchy; each city has chiefman titles: Lugal, Ensi (king) Sumer- govt closely linked w/rel cities= theocracies- governed officially by a god thru earthly representative- king- who’s seen as chosen by gods; closely assoc’d w/priests King + priests = highest socioeconomic class; worship of Sumer gods in temples=>birth of monumental architecture- house of god in form of high-step pyramid- ziggurat - inside: statue of god it worshipped; Sumerian gods anthropomorphic - had human form Each indv city had own patron goddess, but all believed in many gods- polytheism ; gods org’d in hierarchy tht reflected that of human society- basic pts of human society influenced later Israelite- Egyptian (?) relationships Enuma-Elish- creation song- says world orig’d fr watery chaos: order of creation: 1) gods, 2) sky, 3) earth, 4) humans; Aan (sky)- chief Sumerian god; Nature- Enlil; earth a goddess- Enana, then Ishtar; water/wisdom- Enki; plus 50 other gods/goddesses Sumerian gods met in assembly to decide policy issues- thy act like ppl; Sumerians 1 st ppl on earth 3500 BC to=>sys of writing; 1 st sys- pictograms: images symbolizing exactly what they portray; then, signs for words & indv syllables; wrote w/wedge-shaped stylus or wet clay- cuneiform Sumerian rel- 2 central myths: 1) Story of flood (told by Utnapishtim - Sumerian/Babylonian Noah), similar to biblical Noah’s Ark (Genesis), 2) Epic of Gilgamesh - Gilgamesh may have been real person- if was, was king; Sumerian origin, dvlpd by Babylonians; recorded 2000 BC in version we
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Lecture Notes - Lecture Notes 01/08/07 Early Civilization...

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