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Chapter 1 Outline

Chapter 1 Outline - Chapter 1 The First Civilizations The...

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Chapter 1: The First Civilizations The Earliest Humans Homo sapiens evolved ~400K yrs ago; immediate predecessor- Homo erectus (1.5 mil yrs ago); before that, theory of Homo habilis , roughly skillful human in E Africa 2 mil yrs ago; ppl prob emigrated fr Africa to expand territory when became carnivorous, at least 1.7+ mil yrs ago No inevitable pattern of dvlpmt in social grps; but certain stages in dvlpmt of civ Human Beings as Food Gatherers Labor in Early Communities All observed societies, labor divided on basis of sex; earliest societies, hunting/gathering food for survival; women did former, cared for young; men did latter, prob also assumed leadership thru strength during conflicts to=>div of roles based on sex that gave thm dominance over thr cmmtys Thus comparative lack of info re: role of women in history The Old Stone Age Per during which ppl gathered food; aka Paleolithic Age (beginning of human history – 11K BC); some vry sophisticated painting- earliest eg. of role of artistic creation as theme in history of civ; also evidence of attempt to communicate w/forces outside human control thru symbolic action, art, thought (religion, ritual acts) Human Beings as Food Producers The Discovery of Agriculture ~11K BC, most impt event in human history: rise of agriculture - Neolithic Revolution; =>New Stone/ Neolithic Age ; made poss feeding of lrgr pops; ag became another theme thruout history, lgst single factor in world economy Patterns in Population Driving force for Neolithic Rev prob inevitable incr in pop, starting later/upper Paleolithic; trad’l foraging didn’t guarantee cont’s, steady food supply; so farming necess; winter storage of food=> task for cmmty=>social cooperation=>social control=>approach to pol org, govt Ppl putting labor, dependency on thr land= more impt to protect, expand tht land; an effect of ag rev= impetus to gain control over territory- thru negotiation or war , another recurring theme of W civ Early Near Eastern Villages The First Settlements Neolithic Rev prob 1 st occurred in today’s S Turkey/N Iraq; this reg cradle of ag prob b/c only location that had sufficient supply of animals for domestication + needed veggies, cereals; earliest known settlements, ~9000 BC, unwalled w/huts; later, lrgr w/perhaps few 1000 ppl in baked clay houses Invention, Travel, Trade As villages became permanent, also more versatile in inventions; 1 st pottery (Syria) ~8000 BC; => food storage, sustained pop in hard hunting/gathering pers; art of weaving (Anatolia- modern Turkey) ~7000 BC=>new occupations, resources; ~this time, transport/travel via crude rafts, wheeled carts: All helped=>mutually profitable exchange of goods- trade; some towns formed to be trading cntrs; also=>need for safety for traders, trade routes=>need some kind of pol protection, mutual understanding btwn cmmtys, control Agricultural Communities Early farmers concerned for fertility- sought divine powers; by stages, ag cmmtys w/communal gods, domesticated animals, simple technologies/economies, some regulation of social behavior arose, slowly
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