Chapter 2 Outline

Chapter 2 Outline - Chapter 2: The Forming of Greek...

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Chapter 2: The Forming of Greek Civilization Crete and Early Greece (ca. 3000 – 1100 B.C.) 1 st impt society in Greek world dvlpd on island of Crete , S of Aegean Sea; some of its ppl not Greek- prob fr W Asia Minor; traded w/Greeks, influenced in art, rel, writing; Cretan Civilization King Minos and His Palace Most info on Cretan civ due to archaeological info fr villa at Knossos- Palace of Minos; so Cretan civ often called Minoan ; Greek legend told of scary Minotaur- suggests recollection of a (mythical?) ruler Minos , powerful king; no Crete palaces as grand as the Palace of Minos : Built ~2200-1500 BC w/great paintings showing Cretans’ love of nature; absence of walls around palace suggests Minoan civ ~peaceful Cretan Society and the Roles of Women Knossos richest Cretan city; efficient bureaucracy served king; rulers prob men; women respected; theory that women had actual pol power in sys of matriarchy - rule by women- Johann Bachofen theorized 1861 tht early societies worshiped goddess Great Mother/Mother Goddess/Earth Goddess: And only over time did men win pol power; female statues fr Crete depict thr dominating nature; at very least, women at Knossos enjoyed upper-class lifestyle A Cretan Empire? Much Cretan wealth due to trade- thr pottery found thruout MDN world; ~dozen sites in Greek world, prob trading posts,= Minoa ; tho Crete lacked pop to conquer/permanently subdue overseas possessions (no grt Cretan empire w/widespread pol control) Crete and the Greeks Cretan Writing Minoans interchanged w/Greeks thru writing; two syllabic scripts- Linear A (1700-1500 BC), Linear  B (1450-1400 BC)- each symbol represents sound instead of alphabet letter; latter deciphered as early form of Greek by Michael Ventris 1952; Cretan writing found on clay tablets that incl: Inventories, rosters, records; =>~elaborate bureaucracies governed; Greeks thus learned to write their lang in a Cretan script; thr presence on Crete this per suggests Greeks had dominated Knossos, prob done by Mycenae thru mil seizure The Collapse of Cretan Civilization ~1380 BC, catastrophe took Knossos, other Cretan cities; svrl palaces burned/destroyed; due to grt earthquake & perhaps also quarrel/rebellion against Greek rule; some link Knossos’ collapse w/grt earthquake of island of Thera (or Santorini) ~75 mi N of Crete- occurred ~1625 BC; may have damaged Crete, but exact relationship btwn it/Knossos’ destruction unclear Mycenean Civilization (Ca. 1600 – 1100 B.C.) Greeks began to settle in Greece ~2000 BC fr Balkan areas to N; were part of gnrl fam of Indo-EPNs who’d started to migrate to Europe maybe ~5000 BC; called themselves Hellenes , thr country Hellas ; only in W EPN langs are they called Greeks (given by Romans) The City of Mycenae Geog forced Greeks to dvlp independent cmmtys w/kings but w/o direction of a central ruler; by ~1600
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This note was uploaded on 06/24/2008 for the course HIST 1A taught by Professor Wagner during the Winter '07 term at UCLA.

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Chapter 2 Outline - Chapter 2: The Forming of Greek...

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