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Unformatted text preview: Exercise prescription for muscular strength and endurance: capacity of muscle cells to exert force increases and decreases according to demands placed upon the muscular system c Overload Principle : Systematic and progressive increases in resistance lead to muscular adaptation to the imposed demands c Specificity Principle Muscular strength is the ability of a muscle to exert maximal force against resistance. Muscular endurance is the ability of a muscle to exert sub-maximal force repeatedly over time c Strength-Training Prescription : Mode, resistance, sets, and frequency of training Hypertrophy : increase in muscle size Atrophy: decrease in muscle size due to lack of training Mode of training: x Isometric Training: Muscle contraction against resistance that produces little or no movement; seen a lot in beginning of rehab, pushing or pulling against immoveable objects; ex. Pushing against a wall (muscles contracting but not moving through ROM); tightening abs sitting at desk-no joint movement Joint angle specific- only area you will see improved strength: (1) when muscles are shortening under tension (2) when muscles lengthen under tension c Isotonic (Dynamic) Training: most popular type of training; benefit: see strength gain though full ROM and improvements are measured easily by the amount lifted; most daily activities are dynamic in nature muscle contraction against resistance that produces movement Two Action Phases: c Concentric (positive resistance); muscles shortens as it contracts to overcome the resistance c Eccentric (negative resistance); muscle lengthens as it contracts; allow us to lower weights in smooth, gradual and controlled manner Ex. Concentric-during bench press exercise when the resistance is lifted from the chest to full arm extension the triceps muscle on the back of the upper arm contracts and shortens to extend the elbow; eccentric-bench press exercise the same triceps muscle contracts to lower the resistance during the elbow flexion but it lengthens to avoid dropping the resistance No weights (calisthenics, sit-ups, push-ups) Free weights (barbells, dumbbells) Fixed resistance machines Variable resistance machines Isokinetic equipment c Speed of muscle contraction is kept constant\ Isokinetic: subcategory under isotonic training; controls amount of force through a full ROM (ex. Biodex); usually limited to rehab or research centers or some professional sports; ex. Free weights, weight machines; these training requires special machines equipped with mechanical devices that provide differing amounts of resistance with the intent of overloading the muscle group maximally through the entire ROM, speed of muscle contraction is kept constant because the machine provides resistance to match the users force through the ROM, very expensive!!...
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- Spring '08