anatomy exam 1

anatomy exam 1 - Levels of Structural Organization:...

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Levels of Structural Organization: Chemical Level -atoms (smallest component of a cell that retain the properties of the element; C, N, O, P) and molecules (2 or more atoms joined together; DNA) Cellular level -smooth muscle cells, smallest living unit of the body Tissue level -smooth muscle tissues; cells gather to make up tissues and work together to operate to perform a task 4 basic tissue types: connective, epithelial, nervous, muscular Cells: basic structural and functional units of an organism Organ level -ex. Stomach, heart, liver, lungs, brain; are composed of 2 or more different tissues Organ system -ex. Digestive system; collection of related organs with a common function Organismic level -one living system/individual Life Processes: Metabolism = sum of all chemical processes, can be breaking down of molecules or building up of new structural components such as proteins, provides energy to our cells Responsiveness -how we respond to stimuli internally and externally, ex. Muscular contractions Movement at any structural level -from chemical to individual Growth -increase in the number or size of cells and material that is found between cells Differentiation -specialization, when a muscle cell decides its going to be a smooth muscle, important for stem cell research Reproduction -the formation of new cells or new individuals Homeostasis : Maintaining the internal environment within physiological limits Anatomical position -subject stands erect facing observer with head level and eyes facing directly anteriorly, feet flat on floor and directed forward, arms at the side with palms turned forward, upright, Standardized position from which to describe directional terms Regions of the body Anatomical planes, sections and directional terms Prone position -face down Supine position -face up Planes and sections: imaginary flat surfaces that pass through the body Sagittal Planes: divides the body or an organ into left or right side Midsagittal plane -divides the body into equal halves (medium planes) Parasagittal plane -divides the body into unequal halves Frontal or coronal plane -divides the body into front and back (anterior and posterior halves) Transverse (cross-sectional) or horizontal plane -divides the body into upper (superior) and lower (inferior) halves Oblique plane -any combination of any 2 planes Major directional terms:
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Superior -towards the head, ex. Liver superior to urinary bladder, lungs superior to the liver Inferior -away from the head Proximal- nearer to the attachment of a limb to the trunk, closer to the point of attachment Distal- farther from the attachment of a limb to the trunk, away from the point of attachment, ex. Wrist is distal to elbow Dorsal or posterior: nearer to or at the front of the body, ex. Brains posterior to forehead Ventral or anterior: nearer to or at the back of the body, sternums anterior to the heart Medial: nearer to the midline Lateral: farther from the midline Superficial: toward or on the surface of the body
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This note was uploaded on 06/25/2008 for the course KIN 2501 taught by Professor Hargroder during the Spring '08 term at LSU.

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anatomy exam 1 - Levels of Structural Organization:...

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