anatomy exam 2

anatomy exam 2 - The Skeletal System: Bone Tissue Dynamic...

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The Skeletal System: Bone Tissue Dynamic and ever-changing throughout life, Skeleton composed of many different tissues Functions of the bone: Supporting & protecting soft tissues, Attachment site for muscles, Storage of the minerals, Matrix of the bone: Inorganic mineral salts provide bone’s hardness - hydroxyapatite (calcium phosphate) & calcium carbonate ; Organic collagen fibers provide bone’s flexibility - tensile strength ; Mineralization (calcification) is hardening of tissue when mineral crystals deposit around collagen fibers ; Bone is not completely solid since it has small spaces for vessels and red bone marrow Cell types of bone: Osteoprogenitor cells ---- undifferentiated cells, found in endostium, divides, mainly has periostium Osteoblasts— forms matrix and collagen, bone building Osteocytes --- can’t lay matrix but carries on cell metabolic activity Osteoclasts---- from fused monocyte, for bone remodeling Co mpact or dense bone: Looks like solid hard layer of bone, Makes up the shaft of long bones and the external layer of all bones, Resists stresses produced by weight and movement Histology of bone : 4 types of cells in bone tissue
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histology of compact bone: Osteon is concentric rings (lamellae) of calcified matrix surrounding a vertically oriented blood vessel; Osteocytes found in spaces called lacunae; Osteocytes communicate through canaliculated filled with extracellular fluid that connect one cell to the next cell; Interstitial lamellae represent older osteons that have been partially removed during tissue remodeling Anatomy of long bone: Diaphysis -shaft of a long bone Epiphysis- proximal or distal end of bone Metaphysis -growth plate region Articular cartilage over joint surfaces, acts as friction & shock absorber; at proximal and distal end, also known as hylane cartilage Medullary cavity- marrow cavity Endosteum -lining of the marrow cavity Periosteum -tough membrane that covers the bone, not articular cartiledge; has 2 layers: fibrous layer = dense irregular CT (connective tissue) osteogenic layer = bone cells & blood vessels that nourish or help with repairs
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the trabeculae of spongy bone: Latticework of thin plates of bone called trabeculae oriented along lines of stress; Spaces in between these struts are filled with red marrow where blood cells develop; Found in ends of long bones and inside flat bones; calicula- where cells communicate in spongy bone blood and nerve supply of bone: Periosteal arteries -supply to periosteal (several of these); Nutrient arteries - foramen-hole or opening that nutrients, supplies shaft of bone and gives blood supply to red marrow; Metaphyseal & epiphyseal aa. -supplies red marrow, growth plate, metaphyseal and epiphyseal plate of bones Bone formation and ossification: All embryonic connective tissue begins as mesenchyme. Intramembranous bone formation; Endochondral ossification
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This note was uploaded on 06/25/2008 for the course KIN 2501 taught by Professor Hargroder during the Spring '08 term at LSU.

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anatomy exam 2 - The Skeletal System: Bone Tissue Dynamic...

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