anatomy exam 4

anatomy exam 4 - The Cardiovascular System The Blood-Fluids...

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The Cardiovascular System: The Blood --Fluids of the Body Cells of the body are serviced by 2 fluids: (1) blood (2) interstitial fluid Nutrients and oxygen diffuse from the blood into the interstitial fluid & then into the cells; Wastes move in the reverse direction; Hematology is study of blood and blood disorders --Physical Characteristics of Blood : Thicker (more viscous) than water and flows more slowly than water --Transport of O2, CO2 and Nitric Oxide: Each hemoglobin molecule can carry 4 oxygen molecules from lungs to tissue cells; Hemoglobin transports 23% of total CO2 waste from tissue cells to lungs for release-combines with amino acids in globin portion of Hb; Hemoglobin transports nitric oxide & super nitric oxide helping to regulate BP-iron ions pick up nitric oxide (NO) & super nitric oxide (SNO)& transport it to & from the lungs, NO causing vasoconstriction is released in the lungs, SNO causing vasodilation is picked up in the lungs --Functions of Blood: (1) Transportation (oxygen, carbon dioxide, horomones, nutrients, heat) (2) Regulation-helps regulate pH through buffers, helps regulate body temperature, helps regulate water content of cells by interactions with dissolved ions and proteins (3) Protection from disease & loss of blood --Components of Blood: Hematocrit--55% plasma; 45% cells (99% RBCs, < 1% WBCs and platelets) --process in blood coagulation: 3 steps: (1) chemical reactions produce complex, prothrombin activators (2) once activated it produces thrombin which (3) catalyzes into fibrorenogen then becomes fibrinogen fibers which is what causes clotting blood plasma: 55% of blood is plasma; of that 0ver 90% water, 7% plasma proteins-created in the liver and stays in the blood stream (albumin-maintains osmotic blood pressure; globulins (immunoglobulins)-antibodies bind to foreign substances called antigens, form antigen-antibody complexes; fibrinogen-for clotting ); 2% other substances-electrolytes, nutrients, hormones, gases, waste products Hematopoiesis: process that forms blood elements; immunity: (1) innate immunity-protection you are born with (i.e. skin); (2) acquired immunity-antibodies that fight infection Found elements of blood: (1) Red blood cells (erythrocytes); (2) White blood cells (leukocytes)--(a) granular leukocytes-neutrophil, eosinophil, basophile; (b) agranular leukocyte-between lymphocyte, natural killer of cells, monocytes; (3) Platelets (special cell fragments) -- stages of blood formation: (1) Pluripotent stem cells-.1% of red marrow cells, replenish themselves as they differentiate into either myeloid or lymphoid stem cells; (2) Myeloid stem cell line of development continues (specialization: differentiates into blast cells):-progenitor cells that can no longer divide so they become specialized cells, next generation is blast cells; (3) Lymphoid stem cell line of development-pre-B cells & prothymocytes finish their develop into B & T lymphocytes in the lymphatic tissue after leaving the red marrow Erythropoiesis: Production of RBCs-steps in RBC formation: (1) Proerythroblast starts to produce hemoglobin; (2)
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