study guide test 2 - PY 355-001 Fall 2016 Exam 2 Study...

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PY 355-001 Fall 2016 Exam 2 Study Guide Chapter 4 Approaches to Psychological Measurement 4.1 What factors must be considered when selecting the methods for an observational study (3 important decisions to make, and the characteristics associated with each) 1. Observation occur in natural or contrived setting ? 1. Naturalistic Observation : observation of ongoing behavior as it occurs naturally with no intervention by the researcher (ex: researchers observe people/animals in their natural habitat) 1. Participant Observation : only type of Naturalistic Observation a. Researcher engages in same activities as people he is observing 2. Contrived Observation : behavior is observed in a setting that is arranged specifically for observing and recording behavior 1. Most take place in a laboratory 2. Some researchers set up situations outside of a laboratory to observe people’s reactions 2. Will participants know they are being observed? 1. Problems with undisguised observation: 1. Reactivity: participants react differently because they know they are being watched 2. Problems with disguised observation : 1. May violate right of informed consent 2. Potential violation of privacy 3. Ways to minimize reactivity: 1. Partial concealment : participants know they are being observes but not the specific aspects of behavior being observed 2. Knowledgeable informants : people who know the participants well observe and rate their behavior 3. Unobtrusive measures : indirect measures can be taken without participants knowing they are being studied 3. How will participants’ behavior be recorded? 1. Narrative Records : full description of a participant’s behavior 1. Ex- Piaget: used this type of recording when studying his children’s behavior 2. Checklists : researcher records whether particular behaviors or attributes were observed 1. Must formulate clear operational definitions 3. Measures of Latency : 1. Reaction time : the time that elapses between the presentation of a stimulus and the participant’s response 2. Task completion time : the length of time it takes participants to solve a problem or complete a task 3. Interbehavior latency : the time that elapses between two behaviors 4. Duration : how long a particular behavior lasts a. Ex- how long people talk during a conversation; how long people engage in eye contact 4. Observational Rating Scales : researcher rates the quality or intensity of a certain behavior 1. Ex- rating a child’s crying as (a) slight, (b) moderate, or (c) extreme
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PY 355-001 Fall 2016 Exam 2 Study Guide 4.2 Compare and contrast naturalistic observation and contrived observation 1. Naturalistic Observation : observation of ongoing behavior as it occurs naturally with no intervention by the researcher (ex: researchers observe people/animals in their natural habitat) 1. Participant Observation : only type of Naturalistic Observation 1. Researcher engages in same activities as people he is observing 2. Contrived Observation : behavior is observed in a setting that is arranged specifically for observing and recording behavior 1.
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