Mutations - Mutations What are mutations, I wonder?...

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          Mutations Mutations What are mutations, I wonder?
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                            Mutations Mutations Abrupt changes in the genetic material  Abrupt changes in the genetic material  occurring typically during cell division in  occurring typically during cell division in  gametes.  Changes in somatic cells are  gametes.  Changes in somatic cells are  irrelevant in evolution. irrelevant in evolution. I think I get it. But give me some examples
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                              MUTATIONS  Lethal Mutation Somatic Mutation
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    Types of Mutation Types of Mutation 1. Structural changes in Chromosomes a. Loss or duplication of whole genes deletions duplications b. Changes in gene arrangement
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(1) Translocation —large pieces of chromosome moved to non-homologous chromosome. (2) Transposons —”jumping genes”—small pieces of DNA shifting within the genome. (3) Inversions —Chunks of chromosome flipping over. 2. Numerical changes in chromosomes a. Aneuploidy = addition of one or more chromosomes e.g. Down syndrome = extra chromosome # 21 b. Changes in gene arrangement
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    Down Syndrome Down Syndrome
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b. Polyploidy = multiple copies of the entire genome Characteristic of several plant species e.g. Banana can be 2n = 22; 4n = 44 5n = 55; 7n =77 . e.g. Extra sex chromosomes xxy, xyy, xxyy, xxxy
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3. Gene (point) mutations = Nucleotide changes a. SUBSTITIONS DNA CAT TTA GGA GGA AAA DNA CAT TTG GGA GGA G AA
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WHAT HAPPENS?
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This note was uploaded on 06/24/2008 for the course BIO 200 taught by Professor Herreid during the Fall '07 term at SUNY Buffalo.

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Mutations - Mutations What are mutations, I wonder?...

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