1IMPACT OF MICROGRIDSON POWER SYSTEM OPERATIONS Mohammad Shahidehpour, NAE Member, IEEE FellowGalvin Center for Electricity InnovationIllinois Institute of Technology
Introduction2This chapter discusses security, economical and environmental impacts of microgrid operations on power systems. Microgrids have remarkable impacts on existing electricity and gas markets. Microgrids can provide ancillary services to the utility, such as voltage regulation through reactive power support, contingency power reserve and auxiliary power for system black start. This chapter also explores possibilities of establishing cost-effective, user-friendly and reliable communication procedures for master controllers (MCs) to communicate with power systems. The prospects of implementing microgrids involving cooling, heating and electricity are discussed.
Introduction3To harness the microgrid benefits, market reforms are necessary to allow the participation of self generators. Rules and regulations may be framed in future for giving credit to microgrids for reducing net greenhouse gas and participating environmental emissions.Global carbon commitment has been set to reduce carbon emission by 50% by 2050. Microgrids with cleaner microsources are increasingly preferred in this regard for reducing the overall environmental concerns caused by thermal power generation. To combat pollution, MCs would make dispatch decisions for microsources after a proper assessment of pollution levels caused by net emissions in the locality.
Microgrid Impact on Energy Efficiency4In conventional power stations, around 70% of the energy content of fossil fuels is lost in the power plant itself as waste heat; this heat is mainly released into the atmosphere, resulting in global warming. Recent trend in applying the carbon capture and storage in thermal power plants have remarkably raised thermal efficiency to about 50% from conventional 30%. CHP microsources are operated at very high energy efficiencies and the generated heat for supplying local heat loads. This would significantly improve the overall operating efficiency of microgrids.
Microgrid Impact on Energy Efficiency5This section discusses the prospects for thermal energy storage (TES) and the efficient heat utilization for heat loads.Microgrids include TES facilities to enhance the effectiveness of heat usage. Good coordination among heat production, efficient heat utilization in heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) units, chillers, dehumidifiers, and TES is required for energy optimization in microgrids. The process optimization functions can be built in MCs to enhance the microgrid efficiency and reliability.
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- Spring '14
- Electricity generation, Electric power transmission, Electricity distribution, Distributed generation, Microgrids, Microgrid Impact