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Study Guide #1 - CHAPTER 1 Key Terms sociological...

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CHAPTER 1 Key Terms sociological imagination : the ability to both participate in social life and step back and analyze the broader meanings of what is going on. social conditions : realities of life we create together as social beings (ie: poverty, wealth, crime, drug use). sociology : is the scientific study of human societies and human behavior in many groups that make up a society. micro-level sociology : study of the individual and families. macro-level sociology : study of whole societies and the ways in which they are changing. middle-level sociology : things that occur in communities and organizations such as businesses and volunteer associations. scientific method : rigorous observations and analysis. human ecology : sociological perspective that emphasizes the relationships among social order, social disorganization, and distribution of population in space and time. interactionism : is the sociological perspective that views social order and social change as resulting from all the immense variety of repeated interactions among individuals and groups. Understanding of events. functionalism : a sociological perspective that focuses on the ways in which a complex pattern of social structures and arrangements contributes to social order. conflict perspective : struggles of power & control; inequalities. Key People Auguste Comte : believed that the social stability and social change was the most important subject for psychology to tackle. He made the earliest attempts to apply scientific methods to the study of social life. Emile Durkheim : founder of scientific sociology in France. He was pioneering the use of comparative data to assess the directions and consequences of social change.
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Max Weber : German historian, economist, and sociologist. He developed a belief in “value-free” social science. A social scientist might draw research questions from personal political beliefs, but the research itself must apply scientific methods. Karl Marx : The most revolutionary of the three and devoted most of his energy to the international socialist movement. He viewed capitalism and its impact on the masses. Harriet Martineau : She wrote important sociological interpretations of the early phases of capitalism and modernity. She was also a social reformer. W.E.B. DuBois : Helps direct sociological research to racial and social issues in minority communities. Jane Addams : Won the Nobel Peace Prize for women’s suffrage, labor unions, and world peace. C. Wright Mills : Made famous the term sociological imagination. CHAPTER 2 Key Terms hypothesis : A statement that specifies a relationship between two or more variables that can be tested through empirical observations variable : A characteristic of an individual, group, or society that can vary from one case to another dependent variable : the variable that a hypothesis seeks to explain independent variable : a variable that the researcher believes causes a change in another variable participant observation : a form of observation in which the researcher participates to some degree in the lives of the people being observed.
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