# Notes - Exponent Algebra Rules xn xm . = xn+m xn / xm . =...

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Exponent Algebra Rules Summary x n x m ... = x n+m Multiply by same variable - Add exponents x n / x m ... = x n-m Divide by same variable - Subtract exponents (x n ) m ... = x nm Raise variable to a power - Multiply exponents 1/x n ... = x -n Reciprocal of variable- Change sign of the exponent x 0 ... = 1 Raise variable to zero power - Equals 1 I. CHAPTER 2: ATOMS + Elements a. 2.1 Protons, Neutrons, + Electrons i. End of 19 th century Radioactivity 1. Fig 2.2 2. Radioactive substance produces α (alpha), β (beta), γ (gamma) 3. atoms are not indivisible 4. deflection by charged plates a. alpha i. positive ii. 2x |charge| of beta b. beta i. negative c. gamma i. uncharged 5. Deflection results allow calculation of charge/mass ration 6. Another experiment (Millikan) allowed calculation of absolute charge 7. Protons a. more difficult b. gamma = the nucleus i. 2 protons ii. 2 neutrons c. proton +1 charge d. much more massive than β 8. Neutrons a. most difficult, 1930’s b. no charge c. mass of a proton d. expected α to pass through e. most did f. some deflected 9. Model a. nucleus almost all mass, all positive charge, extremely small b. electrons around nucleus, most of the volume, equal charge to nucleus b. 2.2 Atomic Number/Atomic Mass i. Table 2.1 Physical Properties

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ii. Atomic Number 1. Ζ number of protons in the nucleus iii. Atomic Mass Unit 1. u 2. relative mass 3. 1 u = 1/12 mass of C nucleus with 6p 6n
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## This note was uploaded on 06/24/2008 for the course CHEM 105 taught by Professor Wherland during the Fall '07 term at Washington State University .

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Notes - Exponent Algebra Rules xn xm . = xn+m xn / xm . =...

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