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Unformatted text preview: World Civilizations II (Gen Ed 111) Dr. Michael P. Infranco Exam #2 Review Terms 1. Sot Challenge and Marxism : In the 1830s, the Chartist Movement in England rejected the piecemeal reform offered by Parliament and demanded elections by secret ballot, equal electoral districts, the removal of property qualifications, and the mandatory payment for members of Parliament. In The Organizational of Labor , French sot Louis Blanc asserted that the state should socialize its major economic services. His concept of the social order anticipated later theorists in declaring that the workers could only improve their lot through revolution. Blanc formulated the principle, later adopted by Karl Marx, from each according to his abilities, to each according to his needs. Pierre Proudhon (1809-1865) declared that all property was a theft of the value created by labor. He envisioned a system of decentralized cooperative enterprises that would distribute goods based on social needs. 2. Karl Marx (1818-1883) : Born in the Rhineland in 1818; he was descended on both sides from a long line of rabbis. Marx studied philosophy @ Bonn and Berlin before joining young radicals who were trying to extend Hegelian thought in a leftward direction. With Friedrich Engels (1820-1895), Marx wrote a short treatise called the Communist Manifesto on the eve of the European revolutions of 1848. Arguing that human history was filled with class struggle (the oppressors, or bourgeois, and the oppressed, or proletariat), Marx regarded labor as the only source of productive value. He praised the bourgeoisie for having expanded the material base of civilization. However, the contradiction between the wealth of the elite and the poverty of the proletariat could not be ignored. Marxism later split over the issue of revisionism. Pure Marxists believed in the imminent collapse of capitalism and the need for public ownership of the means of production and distribution. Revisionists rejected revolutionary som and argued that workers must organize into mass political parties and work together with other progressive groups to gain reform. 3. Som, Marxism (Communism), and Capitalism : Som Political and economic theory of social organization based on the collective ownership of the means of production; its origins were in the early nineteenth century, and it differs from communism by a desire for slow or moderate change compared to the communist call for revolution. Communism Philosophy and movement that began in middle of the nineteenth century with the work of Karl Marx; it has the same general goals as som, but it includes the belief that violent revolution is necessary to destroy the bourgeois world and institute a new world run by and for the proletariat....
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