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Biology 106 Lecture Notes - 09 January 2008 Chapter 22 I...

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09 January 2008 Chapter 22 I. Chapter 22.1 – History of Evolutionary Thought a. Carolus the “Father of Taxonomy” Linnaeus i. Introducted the binomial classification system: genus and species. ii. Responsible for naming a large number of species and developing a universal system for naming organisms. iii. IMPORTANT NOTE: The grouping of similar species implied no evolutionary relationship. iv. But the taxonomic system would be important for Darwin’s argument for evolution. b. The influence of geology (study of rocks) and paleontology (study of fossils) on biology i. Fossil are impressions of organisms c. Georges Cuvier: French anatomist (1769-1832). i. Noted that each stratum was characterized by a unique group of fossil species. ii. Deeper (older) stratum contained flora and fauna more dissimilar from modern life forms. iii. Recognized extinction was common- from stratum to stratum new species appear and others disappear. iv. Strong opponent of early evolutionary thought. v. Proposed ‘CATASTROPHISM’. 1. Local species are destroyed by catastrophic event (flood, drought, ect…) and their remains are fossilized in a strata providing a snap shot of species alive prior to event. 2. Later area would be repopulated by species coming from unaffected areas. These species would be fossilized in newer strata. d. James Hutton (1726-1797) Scottish geologist proposed the idea of ‘GRADUALISM’ . i. Variation in land forms can be explained by looking at mechanism currently operating today. 1. Canyons are formed by rivers cutting through rock causing erosion and sedimentation. e. Charles Lyell (1797-1875) Scottish geologist proposed ‘UNIFORMITARIANISM’ i. Geological processes have not changed throughout Earth’s history. ii. The rates at which these operate are the same today as in the past. iii. Change results from slow continuous action rather than sudden events. f. Geological gradualism- dramatic changes in the earth’s geological features is due to the g. Hutton’s and Lyell’s influences on biology and evolutionary thought: i. The earth must be very old.
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ii. Slow and subtle processes persisting over long time period can cause substantial change. h. Jan Baptiste Lamarck (1744-1829) French biologist i. Compared living species with fossil and found a chronological series of older to younger fossils leading to a living species. ii. Published the first theory of evolution based on these observations of invertebrates. iii. Supported his theory with two principles: 1. Use and disuse: parts of the body that are used become larger and stronger while those not used deteriorate. 2. Inheritance of acquired characteristics. a. Organism could pass these modifications to its offspring. iv. No evidence that acquired traits can be inherited in this way. v. Not remembered for his visionary recognition of evolution and organism’s adaptation to their environments but for the incorrect mechanism he proposed to explain how evolution occurs.
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