FSHN 130 - Lecture Notes

FSHN 130 - Lecture Notes - I. II. III. IV. Diabetes...

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I. Diabetes mellitus: a. Body does not produce insulin or is unable to use insulin b. Causes high blood glucose levels c. Hyperglycemia occurs, but cells are starved for glucose d. Excess glucose found in urine II. Classification of diabetes mellitus a. Type 1 diabetes (Fig 1, p.162) i. Person is ii. Symptoms of Type 1 diabetes 1. usually develops suddenly 2. rapid weight loss 3. always thirsty 4. frequent urination 5. always hungry 6. suffer from fatigue b. Type 2 diabetes (Fig 3, p.164) c. Type 1 diabetes i. Person is unable to produce insulin d. Type 2 diabetes i. Body develops insulin resistance e. Gestational diabetes i. May occur during pregnancy f. Secondary diabetes III. Poorly controlled diabetes leads to: a. Ketosis b. Damage to nerves, blood vessels, eyes, kidneys c. High blood pressure, heart disease d. Amputations and blindness IV. Carbohydrates in Your Diet a. b. Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDRs) i. Carbohydrates: 45-65% ii. Protein: 10-35% iii. Fat: 20-35% iv. Note: % is of total energy consumed v. Minimum intake of carbohydrate is 130 gm/day c. Dietary guidelines recommend a diet with complex carbohydrates i. High in fiber 1. fruit, vegetables, whole grains ii. Low in added sugar 1. snacks, candy, soda iii. 1. helps control weight 2. reduces “spikes” in blood glucose 3. reduce risk heart disease 4. healthy GI tract
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5. reduce risk colon cancer d. Added Sugar to Your Diet: i. Soda = biggest source of refined sugar (high fructose corn syrup) Serving Size g sugar Calories 8oz (240mL) 26 g (5 tspn) 100 2000mL 216 g (43 tspn) ii. 2L soda contains 7. oz sugar!!! e. Not Enough Carbohydrates – then gluconeogenesis occurs f. Amino acids (proteins) are converted to glucose i. Low carb diets ii. Glycogen stores used up iii. Endurance sports V. Lipids a. Fat is not healthy and we should consume as little as possible in our diet? i. False b. Fat is an important fuel source during rest and exercise? i. True c. Fried foods are relatively nutritious when fried in vegetable shortening? i. False d. Consuming a diet that is relatively low in fat and high in whole grains, fruits, and vegetables can help reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease? i. True e. i. Organic molecules that dissolve in organic solvents but not in water therefore described as hydrophobic (“water fearing”) molecules f. Family of lipids include i. Triglycerides 1. fats and oils 2. stored lipids ii. phospholipids 1. membranes iii. sterols 1. cholesterol, sex hormones, bile, adrenal hormones g. Fatty Acids (FA): i. A carbon chain (4-24 carbons long) with hydrogen atoms attached, sandwiched between a methyl group and an acid group 1. acid group: O=C-NO (alpha end) 2. methyl group: H-C-H-H (omega end) ii. Double Bonds Between Carbons (Fig 7.3) 1. Saturated fat a. 0 double bonds on omega end 2. Monounsaturated fat a. 1 double bond on
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3. Polyunsaturated fat
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FSHN 130 - Lecture Notes - I. II. III. IV. Diabetes...

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