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biol 2160-ch.1

biol 2160-ch.1 - Chapter 1 Outline Physiology-the science...

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Chapter 1 Outline Physiology -the science of body function, our natural desire to understand ourselves and the universe we inhabit, attempts to explain the workings of the body using established principles from physics and chemistry, Science of the normal function and phenomena of living things I. Organization of the Body- grouped cells form tissues which are grouped together to form organs and organ systems Cells -smallest living unit, can each carry out their own life processes, all depend on each other for survival); types of cells: (1) neurons-nerve cells which transmit information in the form of electrical signals (2) muscle cells- elongated in shape and are specialized to contract generating mechanical force and movement, found in voluntary and involuntary muscle cells (3) epithelial cells-found in tissues called epithelia which consist of continuous sheet like layer of cells in combination with a thin underling layer of noncellular material called a basement membrane, these cells are found to kept material on the outside from mixing with material on the inside; ex. Skin, stomach, intestines, blood vessels; some of these cells form glands or organs specialized in the synthesis and secretion of a product (2 types of glands: (a) exocrine glands -secrete a product into a duct leading to the external environment (b) endocrine gland -secrete hormones or chemical that communicate a message to cells of the body into the bloodstream, ex. Pituitary gland and adrenal gland) (4) connective tissue-most diverse, includes blood cells, bone cells, fat cells, and many others, refers to any structure whose primary function is to provide physical support for other structures, ex. Tendons, ligaments, elastic tissue, bones, consists of widely scattered cells embedded in a mass of noncellular material called extracellular matrix which contains elastin (tissue elasticity) and collagen (gives tissues tensile strength-ability to resist stretching) Tissues -any collection of cells performing similar functions, any of the material that the body is composed of, and Organ Systems -collection of organs that work together to perform certain functions, ex. Cardiovascular system, gastrointestinal system, endocrine system (all the glands in the body), immune system -horomones are secreted into the blood and from endocrine glands The Overall Body Plan: A Simplified View- the interior of the body and the body’s external environment are separated by a single layer of epithelial tissue, cells receive oxygen and nutrients from the bloodstream which also carries carbon dioxide and waste products away from the cell, most cells are NOT in direct contact with the blood
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