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Unformatted text preview: CHAPTER 16 : PRACTICE VARIABILITY, SPECIFICITY & CONTEXTUAL INTERFERENCE The Practice Test Relationship Throughout the discussion of the concepts in Chapter 16, we will refer to the relationship between practice and the test that the practice is preparing a person for.-the more specific the practice conditions and the test conditions have in common, the better the test performance will be General principle: The more the practice conditions and the test conditions have in common, the better the test performance will be Constant practice: A practice sequence in which people rehearse only one variation of a given class of tasks during a session Varied practice: A practice sequence in which performers rehearse a number of variations of a class of given tasks during a session-- research evidence shows that variable practice leads to superior retention and transfer test performance when compared to constant practice Definition of Practice Variability : The inclusion in practice of a variety of movement and/or performance context characteristics related to performing a skill Variability in the environment is a good thing when learning Movement and Context Characteristics That Can Be Varied in Practice Skill variations that will be required in test conditions (manual vs. auto. Trans) Physical context in which the skill is performed (sun shine vs. rain) Situation in which the skill occurs (late)-Research evidence shows that more variability of these characteristics in practice is better than less variability for learning-Change environment by chaning skill, physical content, and situation-Psysical- drive in sun or rain, traffic or no traffic-Situation- how you drive when you are late for a test or if its Sunday and you are going to the grocery store How to vary the following Kicking a field goal in football-change defending team; make field muddy; dont make it and have to run sprints Studying for an exam-vary order of chapters you study for the test Kicking- rush and then no rush, make field muddy- enviroment, skill- move at different parts of field, have someone hold the ball. Situation- penalty, we have to run if you dont make the goal. Which that is negative reinforcement. Studying for exam- steal a chair from the room and go study in it at home, start with the hardest test or in order. Better off if you bounce around notes, Examples of varying practice conditions for 2 types of closed skills Intertribal variability of regulatory conditions (gold shot using 7 iron)-goal is to successfully make shots with the 7 iron during a golf match-regulatory conditions that remain constant in a match: 7 iron characteristics, gold ball characteristics-reg. conditions that can vary in a match: goal for the shot, distance of required shot, location of ball-nonreg. Conditions that can vary in a match: # of hole being played, number of strokes ahead or behind, cloudy or sunny skies, importance of a particular shot...
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- Spring '08