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kin 3513-ch 12

kin 3513-ch 12 - Chapter 12 The Stages of Learning Concept...

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Chapter 12 The Stages of Learning Concept Distinct performance and performer characteristics change during skill learning
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Introduction People progress through distinct stages (phases) as they learn a motor skill i.e , as they progress from being a beginner to being highly skilled We will discuss two models proposed to identify and describe the stages: Fitts and Posner three-stage model Gentile two-stage model
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The Basis for Learning Stages Models: Time / Amount of Practice Continuum Novice Expert [Beginner] [Highly Skilled] Time / Amount of Practice
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Fitts and Posner Model Cognitive Associative Autonomous Stage Stage Stage Novice Expert [Beginner] [Highly Skilled]
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Fitts and Posner Model: Cognitive Stage Person characteristics Questions concern what to do to achieve goal of the skill Involved in cognitive and movement problem- solving activity Movements demand large amount of conscious attention Aware of making errors, but doesn’t know how to correct them May display confusion
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Fitts and Posner Model: Cognitive Stage ( cont .) Performance characteristics “In the ballpark” movement pattern Large number of errors Errors tend to be “big” High amount of trial-to-trial variability ( i.e ., poor consistency)
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Fitts and Posner Model: Associative Stage Person characteristics Reduced amount of attention demanded at movement level Increased capability to perform simultaneous tasks Increased capability to detect errors Performance characteristics Refinement of movement pattern Errors are fewer and smaller Trial-to-trial variability decreases
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Fitts and Posner Model: Autonomous Stage Person characteristics Very little, if any, attention demanded at movement level (“automatic”) Capable of performing simultaneous tasks Capable of detecting and correcting errors Performance characteristics Consistent trial-to- trial movement pattern Errors are few and small Dance/juggling video
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Gentile Model Initial Stage Later Stages Novice Expert [Beginner] [Highly Skilled]
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