1. The other group than the white pines for blister rust is the woody shrubs of the genus ribes. 2. The blister rust was first observed in 1854 in the baltic provinces of Russia on European black currant, red currant, palm gooseberry, and the eastern white pine. 3. Blister rust was introduced to the states in 1890 to 1914 when France and Germany sold eastern white pine seeds to the states. 4. To control the blister rust, workers first began to remove infected pines and soon began Ribes eradication. They also used two chemicals that were actidione and phytoactin. 5. Whitebark pine is a hardy species that tolerates exposed sites and poor soils up to tree line elevations where it forms a prostrate or krummholz, growth form. Tolerance of hard, windswept sites enables it to grow where other conifers cannot. Consequently whitebark pine plays an important role in regulating strem flow in upper elevation watersheds, where soils have little water holding capacity. The shade provided by whitebark pine canopies protracts snowmelt, thus
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