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Sociolinguistics - Sociolinguistics the way language...

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mm’s Law x (h) foot-english night k pie-spanish nacht- x k pie-spanish noktem d g b-?? something i>>>> <<<<u e ? ae ? Sociolinguistics: the way language interacts in society. Words with restricted use (cussing). Dialects. Slang. How language changes over time: we now need words like blog and Wi-Fi. Sociolinguistics: variation in language Socially realistic linguistics : Starts with linguistic data and tries to describe society by this data. Phonetics is the most common or used or whatever cause is the easiest to pick out because you can hear the differences in the ways people speak and relate that to wear they are from and wear the grew up. Syntax: sentences are different in different places. Women and men sometimes speak differently. Ya’ll is a morphological distinction. Socially constituted linguistics : goes in other direction; aware of society, see the differences but do they show up linguistically. Speech of women and speech of men, and speech of 4 th generation Mexicans here and newer ones. Sociology of language/social psychology of language Social and linguistic: looks at things as they interact in society but on a more conscious level. Language can vary in many aspencts: Regional Social -poor/rich -jock/nonjock Racial/ethnic “Standard English”: myth; does not actually exist, no one speaks it naturally. Newscasters used to speak it the best, but in the last 10-15 years it’s become regional to accommodate their region. Dialects of English: (regionally dialectology) o People speak English differently in different places o Theses differences “originally” reflected different settlement histories. o Look for differences, plot them on a map (isogloss-boundary between the differences) o Many coterminous lines of differences make up a dialect “boundary” or “border” (bundle of isoglosses) Problems o Word lists o Brand names, specialized knowledge, shared media o NORMs (non-mobile, Older, Rural, Males) o No women, children, or “city folk” o Decline of “rural life” William Labov (next to Chomsky, very important): o “Dialectology” now called “sociolinguistics”(for a long time resisted calling it sociolinguistics because it means you could have linguistics that is not social) o Focuses on pronunciation and grammar o Less “conscious” and susceptible to active manipulation
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o Focus on “natural speech” (have to catch people when they are unaware they are being recorded) o Social variation = language variation o Language variation language change ‘Labovian’ Sociolinguistics o Still historical: “ variation and change” o Assumes non-intentionality o Language variation MUST entail social variation o Eckert: Jocks and Burnouts (cliques in school) o Variation indexes Social Categories (indexicality) o
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