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linguistics quiz #1

linguistics quiz #1 - BASICS Ferdinand de Saussure...

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BASICS: Ferdinand de Saussure: arbitrary- there is no connection between a word and what it means 4 basic parts of language: syntax-sentence structure; semantics-the meaning of morphemes, words, phrases, and sentences; phonetics/phonology-sounds; morphology- rules of word formation Communication vs. language: Arbitrariness: describes the property of language, including sign language, whereby there is no natural or intrinsic relationship between the way a word is pronounced (or signed) and its meaning Descriptive: how people use language; more important Prescriptive: how people should use language; not used as often in linguistics Form: the phonological or gestural representation of a morpheme or word Meaning: the conceptual or semantic aspect of a sign or utterance that permits us to comprehend the message being conveyed. Expressions in language generally have both form-pronunciation or gesture-and meaning. Ideal speaker-hearer: Competence: with competence we can produce infinitely long sentences Performance: usually keeps us from being able to produce these long sentences Speech: speaking a language is more natural than writing one Writing: written language is only about 100thousand years old. Sapir-Whorf: the language you speak determines how you think; claim that the structure of language influences how its speakers perceive the world around them. Both linguistic determinism and relativism are form of the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis. Lexical relativism/determinism: relativism- language not only determines your thoughts, it tweaks your thoughts; determinism- you think in words What is language?: o medium for communication/put thoughts into words o express yourself o label and describe the world around us o divine gift o way to impress the opposite sex o verbal vs. nonverbal o cultural “stuff” o the sound and word-meaning Hockett’s 16 design features of human language(esp. 5-13): 5. Feedback : users of a language can perceive what they are transmitting and can make corrections if they make errors. 6. Specialization : the direct-energetic consequences of linguistic signals are usually biologically trivial; only the triggering effects are important. 7. Semanticity : there are associative ties between signal elements and features in the world; in short, some linguistic forms have denotations.
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8. Arbitrariness : there is no logical connection between the form of the signal and its meaning. 9. Discreteness : messages in the system are made up of smaller, repeatable parts; the sounds of language (or cheremes of a sign) are perceived categorically, not continuously. 10. Displacement : linguistic messages may refer to things remote in time and space, or both, from the site of the communication. 11. Productivity
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linguistics quiz #1 - BASICS Ferdinand de Saussure...

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