TEST TWO REVIEW - TEST TWO: LIN 306 Bigham : Thursday,...

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TEST TWO: LIN 306 – Bigham : Thursday, 10-11-07 FUNDAMENTALS: universal grammar: is like the search for universal grammar. What would you do without the ability to tweak things? The innate principals and properties that pertain to the grammars of all human languages nativist vs. non-nativist explanations: on bottom connectionist models: connections that get used most often are more likely to get used in the future. (The picture of the three buildings with the grass in the middle and you take the most used path, in the picture it is the one that is worn and more used.) SYNTAX: Chomsky: is considered the other father of modern linguistics; gave us TG and minimalism (not as important though). underlying form: deep structure surface form: Principals are the like programs that your computers have in them and the parameters are the things that you can tweak like layout and appearance. They ways in which you can tweak them are already there, built in. node: a labeled branch point in a phrase structure tree; part of the graphical depiction of a transition network represented as a circle, pairs of which are connected by arcs. structural ambiguity (be able to draw disambiguating trees) thematic roles: what a thing does in a sentence (John kicked Mary.) Agent – what or who is doing something (John) Patient - the thing that gets acted upon in the sentence (Mary) Theme - (normally combined with patient) Goal - the source of the action, or where it is going Source -where it is coming from Instrument -something that you do something with Experiencer - (Mary experienced a kick from John) Syntax does not work without semantics. Syntax and semantic interface: Eat 1 Eat 2 Agent agent Patient Eat what can it take? head V Comp NP PP AdvP Dream Experiencer-required Dream has V and Comp Comp has PP and Adv P and CP
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recursion: CP>C S S is VP and NP VP is V and CP CP all over again and recursion happens ideal speaker-hearer: performance: competence: subject: object: verb: adposition: prepositions and postpositions phrasal categories: all have to have head transformation rules: CP goes to C S structural ambiguity vs. lexical ambiguity (know the difference, spot the difference):   Lexical ambiguity: ambiguous because of the semantics of individual words
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This note was uploaded on 06/25/2008 for the course LIN 306 taught by Professor Shields during the Fall '08 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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TEST TWO REVIEW - TEST TWO: LIN 306 Bigham : Thursday,...

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