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Chapter 14 Covalent Bonding

Chapter 14 Covalent Bonding - Chapter 14 Covalent Bonding...

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Chapter 14 Covalent Bonding: Orbitals 14.1 Hybridization and the Localized Electron Model sp 3 Hybridization: o Hybridization: the mixing of the native atomic orbitals to form special orbitals for bonding. The four new orbitals are called sp 3 orbitals since they are formed from one 2s and three 2p orbitals (s 2 p 3 ). o (Electrons have been omitted because we are not concerned with the electron arrangements of the individual atoms—it is the total number of valence electrons and the arrangement of these electrons in the molecule that are important.) o Whenever a set of equivalent, tetrahedral atomic orbitals is required by an atom, this model assumes that the atom forms a set of sp 3 orbitals; the atom is said to be sp 3 hybridized. sp 2 Hybridization: o The plane of the sp2 hybridized orbitals is determined by which p orbitals are used. When an electron pair is shared in an area centered on a line running between the atoms its called a sigma bond. The electron pair occupies the space between the carbon atoms of ethylene. The second bond must result from sharing an electron pair in the space above and below the sigma bond. Parallel p orbitals can share an electron pair, which occupies the space above and below a line joining atoms, to form a pi bond. (Sigma bonds are formed from orbitals whose lobes point toward each other, but pi bonds result from parallel orbitals.) A double bond consists of one sigma bond, where the electron pair is located directly between the atoms, and one pi bond, where the shared pair occupies the space above and below the sigma bond. o Whenever an atom is surrounded by three effective pairs, a set of sp 2 hybrid orbitals is required. sp Hybridization: o Obtaining two hybrid orbitals arranged at 180 degrees requires sp hybridization, involving one s orbital and one p orbital. o Two effective pairs around an atom will always require sp hybridization of that atom. dsp 3 Hybridization: o One d orbital, one s orbital, and three p orbitals. o A set of five effective pairs around a given atom always requires a trigonal bipyramidal arrangement, which in turn involves dsp 3 hybridization of that atom. d 2 sp 3 Hybridization: o an octahedral set of six hybrid orbitals. o Two d orbitals, on s orbital, and three p orbitals are combined. o Six electron pairs around an atom are always arranged octahedrally, requiring d 2 sp 3 hybridization of the atom. Describing a molecule with the localized electron model:
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o Draw the Lewis structure.
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