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Chapter 13 Bonding - Chapter 13 Bonding General Concepts...

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Chapter 13 Bonding: General Concepts 13.1 Types of Chemical Bonds Bond energy is the energy required to break the bond. Spectroscopy is the study of the interactions of electromagnetic radiation with matter. Ionic substances are formed when an atom that loses electrons relatively easily reacts with an atom that has a high affinity for electrons. So an ionic compound results when a metal reacts with a nonmetal. The energy of interaction between a pair of ions can be calculated by using Coulomb’s law. Bonds want to achieve the lowest possible energy. A bond will form—that is, the two hydrogen atoms will exist as a molecular unit—if the system can lower its total energy in the process. The distance at which the energy is minimum is called the equilibrium internuclear distance, or bond length. Four important features of the H 2 molecule diagram. 1. The energy terms involved are the potential energy that results from the attraction and repulsions among the charged particles and the kinetic energy caused by the motions of the electrons. 2. The zero reference point for energy is defined for the atoms at infinite separation. 3. At very short distances the energy rises steeply because of the great importance of the internuclear repulsive forces at these distances. 4. The bond length is the distance at which the system has minimum energy and the bond energy corresponds to the depth of the “well” at this distance. Covalent bonding: electrons are shared by nuclei. o Ionic bonding: the participating atoms are so different that one or more electrons are transferred to form oppositely charges ions. Bonding results from electrostatic interactions among the resulting ions. o Covalent bonding: two identical atoms share electrons equally. Bonding results from the mutual attraction of the two nuclei for the shared electrons. o Between these extremes lie intermediate cases in which the atoms are not so different that electrons are completely transferred but are different enough so that unequal sharing results. Called polar covalent bonds. 13.2 Electronegativity electronegativity: the ability of an atom in a molecule to attract shared electrons to itself Electronegativity difference in the bonding atoms Zero Intermediate Large Covalent Polar covalent Ionic Bond type 13.3 Bond polarity and dipole moments A molecule with a center of positive charge and a center of negative charge is said to be dipolar, or to have a dipole moment.
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