Ch400Ch6LN3 - Chem 400 Chapter 6 Lecture Notes Part 3 The...

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Chem 400 Chapter 6 Lecture Notes Part 3 The Alkali Metals • The alkali metals of Group 1 (remember H is NOT part of Group 1) all have 1 valence electron with the configuration ns 1 . • They have some of the lowest IE values, so they lose their 1 valence electron easily to form +1 cations. • So they form ionic compounds readily and they are very strong reducing agents. So they are the most reactive metals, and reactivity increases going down the Group (this is a general trend that mirrors metallicity). • They are so reactive that they must be stored in oils as they react with water and oxygen. • They are also some of the most metallic elements. • They do have a silvery appearance, but they are generally soft (and get softer going down the Group). • They also have low melting points and densities. • None of the Alkali Metals are found in nature in the elemental states, they are only found in salts. • Li and Na are produced by electrolysis, where an electric current is passed through an aq sln of the chloride salt to decompose the salt into the metal and chlorine gas. • K, Rb, and Cs are produced at very high temperatures via single displacement rxns. The Alkaline Earth Metals • The alkaline earth metals of Group 2 all have 2 valence electrons with the configuration ns 2 . • Although they have low IE 1 values, their IE 2 values are much higher. • However the Lattice energy for their ionic compounds is very high as their +2 cations are small and have a high + charge. • So they lose their 2 valence electrons easily to form +2 cations. • So they form ionic compounds readily and they are strong reducing agents. • They are the second most reactive metal Group, and reactivity increases going down the Group. • So actually Ca, Ba and Sr are more reactive than Na in most circumstances. • Like the Alkali Metals they are strong metals with a silvery appearance, but they are generally harder than the Alkali Metals (but still softer than most metals). • They also have low melting points and densities, but they are higher than the Alkali Metals. • None of the Alkaline Earth Metals are found in nature in the elemental states, they are only found in salts. • They are all produced through reduction rxns. The Aluminum Group (13) • The elements of Group 13 all have 3 valence electrons with the configuration ns 2 np 1 . • They are all metals except B, which is a metalloid or semiconductor.
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Ch400Ch6LN3 - Chem 400 Chapter 6 Lecture Notes Part 3 The...

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