C401Ch13LN1 - Ch 13 Chemical Equilibrium Part 1 What is...

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Ch 13: Chemical Equilibrium Part 1 What is Equilibrium? In the last chapter, you saw some reversible, equilibrium rxns when we investigated mechanisms. The double arrow ª is used to denote that the rxn is an equilibrium rxn, meaning that the rxn proceeds in both directions, forwards and backwards (or reverse). Actually, when you learned about vapor pressure, you learned that the vapor above a liquid is in equilibrium with the liquid phase in a closed container. This is an equilibrium physical process. Example: Let's start with a sealed container of colorless frozen N 2 O 4 . At room temperature, it decomposes to brown ________ At some time, the color stops changing and we have an equilibrium mixture of N 2 O 4 and _______ which will remain constant over time. Chemical equilibrium is the point at which the concentrations of all species are constant. Consider a simple rxn. Assume that both the forward and reverse rxn are elementary processes. We can write rate expressions for each rxn. Forward rxn: Reverse rxn: Now let's place some pure compound A into a closed container. As A reacts to form B, the concentration of A will decrease and the concentration of B will increase. But as we start to form B, the reverse rxn starts to produce A from B. Thus we expect the forward rxn rate to slow and the reverse rxn rate to increase. Eventually we reach equilibrium where [A] and [B] are constant, or they are being
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C401Ch13LN1 - Ch 13 Chemical Equilibrium Part 1 What is...

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