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comm review - Lowrey DeFleur Industrialization With new...

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Industrialization : With new machines that did work more efficiently, the devices were replacing human ahnds and muscles, goods could be produced far more rapidly. People to work in these factories only needed minimal skill. The significance of the development of the corporate structure and the great expansion in the size of inductrial-commercial groups is that they brought new dependence on bureaucracy as a form of social organization. As the traditional society gave way to the industrial order, the bonds that united people were based less and less on such sentiments nand more and more on the impersonal obligations of the legal contract (there was a reduction of close personal ties between people). Urbanization : is a process by which an increasing proportion of the population of a given area live in towns and cities. Unlike people were brought together. People were not trusting other people. In a socity of distruct, the contract rather than the handshake becomes the principle basis of regulating obligaction between people. Modernization : With urbanization and industrialization, new innovations were adopted (indoor heating, refrigeration, automobile, etc.). The process of modernization is closely linked with the growth of mass media. Populations undergoing modernization not only increase their consumption of goods but their use of print, film, and broadcast media. Mass Society : the underlying features that distinguish this type of society from other forms have to do with the relationships between their members rather than the size of their populations. ???? Theories of Indirect Influence : Media could produce long-range and indirect influences. It is probably in terms of such indirect and long-term influence that the media exercise their greatest influence. Sparks Chapter 1 Three Ways of Knowing : 1) Experience; 2) Authority; 3) Science (the most powerful way of knowing). Both experience and authority can have faults and dangers. If we trust our own experience too much or trust authority too much, we may run into trouble. 4 Goals of Science : 1) Prediction: fortelling the future; 2) Explanation: knowing why something occurs the way it does. Explanations place the phenomenon to be explained into a broader framework or pattern that doesn’t really require much additional elaboration.; 3) Understanding: has to do with knowing the particular sequence of causal events that unfold in a given phenomenon of interest; 4) Control: when scientists can accurately predict, explain, and understand a phenomenon, they are afforded greater control over that phenomenon. How are the Goals of Science Achieved? : 1)Theory: The thing that generates experiments, testing, data analysis. A scientific theory consists of more than one
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statement; a set of statements identifies the key concepts of the theory and specify how they are related. They yield hypotheses that are testable by observation. A hypothesis is a specific prediction about what till happen under a certain set of well specified conditions;
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