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comm review #2

comm review #2 - Smith 1998 NTVS Four foundations of study...

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Smith 1998- NTVS Four foundations of study 1) Television violence contributes to harmful effects on viewers 2) Three types of harmful effects can occur from viewing televised violence a. Learning aggressive attitudes and behaviors b. Desensitization to violence c. Increased fear of being victimized by violence 3) Not all violence poses the same degree of risk of these harmful effects 4) Not all viewers are affected by violence in the same way Table 1: Harmful Effects Of TV Aggression Learning Aggression Fear Desensitization Contextual Features (^ = increase the Outcome; > = decrease The outcome) Attractive Perpertrator ^ Attractive Victim ^ Justified Violence ^ Unjustified Violence > ^ Conventional Weapons ^ Extensive/Graphic Violence ^ ^ ^ Realistic Violence ^ ^ Rewards ^ ^ Punishments > > Pain/Harm Cues > Humor ^ ^ Key aspects of definition: Violence is a depiction of a credible threat of physical force or actual use of a force that is intended to harm an animate being or group. Violence includes certain depictions of physically harmful consequences against someone or a group that occurs as a result of unseen violence. (Three forms of violence are: credible threats, behavioral acts, and harmful consequences of unseen violence) Sample: 9 month period each year from Oct 1994 to June 1997; 23 channels randomly selected to create a composite week. Programs monitored between 6:00 am and 11:00 pm (17 hrs. a day, 7 days a week = 119 hrs/channel). 23 channels represent the most frequently viewed channels, and exclude sports, or news. Channels assessed are : broadcast networks, independent broadcast, public broadcast, basic cable, and premium cable. Nearly 10,000 hrs of television sampled over 3 yr. period.
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Violent incident, scene, program: In assessing how violence is portrayed on TV, they identified each violent incident, or interaction between a perpertrator and a victim. They analyzed the violence scene, or instance of ongoing uninterrupted violence. They then analyzed the entire violent program. The full program must be evaluated tp determine if there is an overall theme of anti-violence . By analyzing violence at all three of these levels, they provide rich information about the meaning of ciolence in television programming. Findings: What is glamorized? Much of TV violence is glamorized. Good characters are frequently the perpertratos of violence, and they rarely show remorse or experience represcussions of violence. Over 3 years, 40% of violence was perpertrated by good characters. On TV, physical aggression is condoned and goes unpunished, even for bad characters. 71% of scenes contain no remorse, criticism, or pernalty for violence at the time that it occurs. What is sanitized? TV violence is sanitized.Television ignores or underestimates what happens to the victims of violence. 1/2 of violence incidents on TV show no physical harm or pain to the victim. Less than 20% of violent programs portray long-term damage of violence to victim’s family, friends, etc.
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