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Unformatted text preview: A.1 • Matter: any thing that takes up space • Substance: single pure form of matter • States of matter: solid, liquid, gas • Properties of matter o Physical property: characteristic that’s observable, measureable w/o changing its identity ( m = mass) ( s = second) o Chemical property: ability to change into another substance • Systeme International (SI) unit o Base units ( physical quantities can be expressed) Meter – m (length) Kilogram – k(mass) Second – s (time) • Common prefixes o Centi c 1/100 (0.01) (10^-2) 1cm=1/100m (1 centimeter) o Mili m 1/1000 (0.001( 10^-3) 1ms=1/1000ms (1 milisecond) o Kilo k 1000 (10^3) 1km=1000m (1 kilometer) Volume meter^3 Densitity ^-3 length = meter (m) mass = kilogram (kg) time = second (s) electric current = ampere (A) temperature = Kelvin (K) chemical amount = mole (mol) luminous intensity = candela (cd) *Prefixes for these are found Appendix 1, know Mega, kilo, centi, milli, micro, nano and pico KNOW THESE base units and prefixes! Force SI unit = Newton (N) = (kg)(m)/s 2 A force applied to an object changes its state of motion. e.g. A force is necessary to cause acceleration of an initially stationary object. F = (m)(a) = ( mass )( acceleration) gravitational force = (mass)(9.8 m/s 2 ) electrostatic (Coulombic) force = kq 1 q 2 /r 2 • Converting o 1in =2.54 cm Units given = units required • Conversion factor = units required/units given o Information required = information given x factor Micrograms per nanometer (ug x nm ^-3) • Intensive property: independent on the extent of the sample (temperature, density) • Extensive property: depends on the extent of the sample (volume, mass, heat) o Heat flows from high to low...
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