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Comm 101 Framing - o Culture Defined as the empirically...

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Framing Robert Entman Framing o Offers a way to describe the power of a communicating text o Illuminates the precise way in which influence over a human consciousness is exerted by the transfer of information from one location to that consciousness Frames o Define Problems Determine what a causal agent is doing with what costs and benefits measured in terms of common cultural values o Diagnose causes Identify the forces creating their problem o Make moral judgments Evaluate causal agents and their effects o Suggest remedies Offer and justify treatments for the problems and predict their likely effects Four Locations of Frames o Communicators Make framing judgments in deciding what to say guided by frames that organize their belief system o Text Contain frames which are manifested by the presence or absence of certain keywords, phrases, stereotypical images, sources of information, and sentences that provide thematically reinforcing clusters of facts or judgments o Receiver Audience which may or may not accept the frames
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Unformatted text preview: o Culture Defined as the empirically demonstrated set of common frames exhibited in the discourse ad thinking of most people in a social grouping o Salience Making a piece of information more noticeable, meaningful, or memorable to audiences • Benefits of Framing o Audience Autonomy Provides and operational definition for the notion of dominant meaning that is central to debates about the polysemy and audience independence in decoding media texts o Journalist Objectivity Journalists need to be able to understand the difference between including scattered oppositional facts and challenging a dominant frame o Content Analysis Framing allows content analyzers to measure the salience of frames in a text rather than just simply quantitatively counting the instances of messages o Public Opinion and Normative Democratic Theory Framing is a central power in the democratic process because political elites control the framing of issues...
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