outline2 - Elena Shrestha 8/30/06 Pd. 1 I. Atoms,...

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Elena Shrestha 8/30/06 Pd. 1 I. Atoms, Molecules, and Ions A. The Early History of Chemistry 1. Around 1000 B.C, processing natural ores to produce metals and the utilization of embalming fluids were widely used 2. Next 2000 years, alchemy dominated 3. Foundation of chemistry lay from metallurgy 4. Robert Boyle (first chemist to perform quantitative experiments) 5. Georg Stahl suggested that “phlogiston” occurred of burning material 6. Joseph Priestley found evidence to support phlogiston B. Fundamental Chemical Laws 1. Antoine Laviosier, a French chemist contributed a lot in the chemical field 2. Mass is neither created nor destroyed 3. A given compound always contains exactly the same proportion of elements by mass 4. Dalton => law of multiple proportions 5. When two elements form a series of compounds, the ratios of the masses of the second element that combine with 1g of the first element can always be reduced to small whole numbers C. Dalton’s Atomic Theory 1. Each element is made up of tiny particles called atoms 2. The atoms of a given element are identical; the atoms of different elements are different in some fundamental way or ways 3. Chemical compounds are formed when atoms of different elements combine with each other 4. Chemical reactions involve reorganization of the atoms-changes in the way they are bound together 5. Avogadro’s hypothesis: at the same temperature and pressure,
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outline2 - Elena Shrestha 8/30/06 Pd. 1 I. Atoms,...

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