15-Urinary System - 1 THE URINARY SYSTEM Dr Wafaa Shunnaq Introduction 2 Nephrology is the medical specialty that deals with the anatomy physiology and

15-Urinary System - 1 THE URINARY SYSTEM Dr Wafaa Shunnaq...

This preview shows page 1 - 12 out of 33 pages.

THE URINARY SYSTEM Dr. Wafaa Shunnaq 1
Image of page 1

Subscribe to view the full document.

Introduction Nephrology is the medical specialty that deals with the anatomy, physiology, and pathology of the kidney; urology is the branch of medicine that deals with the male and female urinary systems and the male reproductive system. The urinary system consists of: 1. two kidneys 2. two ureters , which drain urine from the kidneys and transport it to... 3. one urinary bladder , which stores urine until it is ready to be expelled 4. one urethra , which transports urine from the urinary bladder to the exterior; in males, the urethra also transports semen 2
Image of page 2
Function of kidneys 1. regulation of blood ionic composition 2. regulation of blood pH 3. regulation of blood volume 4. enzymatic regulation of blood pressure through the secretion of renin 5. maintenance of blood osmolarity 6. production of hormones, namely calcitriol and erythropoietin 7. regulation of blood glucose level 8. excretion of wastes and foreign substances 3
Image of page 3

Subscribe to view the full document.

4 The urinary system consists of: two kidneys, two ureters, one urinary bladder, and one urethra
Image of page 4
5
Image of page 5

Subscribe to view the full document.

Anatomy of Kidney The paired reddish kidneys are retroperitoneal organs attached to the posterior abdominal wall just above waist level. They are positioned between the levels of the last thoracic and the third lumbar vertebrae. hey are partially protected by the eleventh and twelfth pairs of ribs. The right kidney is slightly lower than the left due to the presence of the liver on the right side. 6
Image of page 6
External Anatomy Near the center of the kidney’s concave medial border is a depression called the renal hilum , through which travel: i. ureter ii. blood vessels and lymphatic vessels iii. nerves The renal hilum is the entrance to a cavity in the kidney called the renal sinus . The kidney is surrounded by three layers of tissue: i. inner renal capsule ii. intermediate adipose capsule iii. outer renal fascia 7
Image of page 7

Subscribe to view the full document.

Kidneys An adult kidney is about 12 cm long, 6 cm wide, and 3 cm thick. It is convex laterally and concave medially, has a medial indentation called the renal hilum. Several structures, including the ureters, the renal blood vessels, and nerves, enter or exit the kidney at the hilum. 8
Image of page 8
9 Three layers of tissue surround each kidney. 1. Deep inner layer, renal capsule. 2. The middle layer, the adipose capsule , is a fatty mass which surrounds each kidney and helps hold it in place. 3. The superficial layer, the renal fascia , is that anchors the kidney to the surrounding structures.
Image of page 9

Subscribe to view the full document.

External Anatomy of Kidney Blood vessels & ureter enter hilus of kidney Renal capsule = transparent membrane maintains organ shape Adipose capsule that helps protect from trauma Renal fascia = dense, irregular connective tissue that holds against back body wall 10
Image of page 10
Internal Anatomy of Kidney The kidney’s functional tissue, called the parenchyma , has: i. an outer layer called the renal cortex ii. an inner region called the
Image of page 11

Subscribe to view the full document.

Image of page 12
  • Fall '16
  • Anatomy, renal medulla, Renal cortex

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern

Ask Expert Tutors You can ask bonus questions You can ask questions ( expire soon) You can ask questions (will expire )
Answers in as fast as 15 minutes