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Introduction to Comparative Politics: Political Challenges and Changing Agendas

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19 Jan 2007 England – Standard for Democracy - UK: England, Wales, Scotland, Northern Ireland (The entire nation-state) o Political culture – carried forward o Socialization Religious gatherings Family most important in most countries Education: brings in values, etc. o Class matters - Ideology: o Conservatism Beliefs they share Should be supported by the state (Capitalist element) o Government acts as in-between 1979 – 1990 Margaret Thatcher – Traditionalism o Responsible for yourself (vs. collective) o Liberalism Provide for less fortunate – welfare Favors government intervention in welfare issues 1997 Tony Blair changed this – less government intervention New Labor: Center left - Deference to Authority o As opposed to the French o Legitimacy – Traditional, from history
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19 Jan 2007 Support constitutional system, not necessarily present government System is supported, but not always the case for the government o High legitimacy from values evolved over centuries Belief in Gradualism (vs. Russia – Vanguard, etc.) Iran & Russia’s revolutions = exact opposite o Democratized Symbolic monarchy, House of Lords = Hereditary Power shifted from 1600s Monarch to the Parliament & House of Commons - Period After WWII – Most Critical o Conservatists – Winston Churchhill vs. Labor’s Clement Atlee Opposed planning & controls – socialism o Command control vs. Free Market (Collective Responsibility) o Relationship between states & citizens During war: Collective, welfare, by government After war: Churchill rejected this Keynesian: Government should create welfare state – 1979 seen as failure of this concept People’s values Swing to liberal, 1945 Legally required state control of entire industries: Coal, rail, steel – For common good Labor: Mixed economy co-existing with private enterprise o Nationalization – industry falls entirely to government
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19 Jan 2007 “Commanding heights” – Forced to sell businesses Were those most critical to security of the country o Lenin & Stalin fascism during this time - Collectivist Consensus: After WWII o State obligated to provide employment o Labor unions: Now a policy-making force, already allied with Labor Party till Thatcher o State government = Responsible for economy - Policies to Meet Goals o Beveridge Report of 1942 – Welfare: healthcare, unemployment benefits, pensions, all for state o 1944: Keynesian policy outlined new roles of state o 1944: Butler Education Act – Education all the way to end of college o 1948: National Healthcare Service o 1970: Keynesian policy failed - Conservatists voted out o Contradicted their own beliefs The Unwritten Constitution & Institutions of Government - Facts o Constitution: Defines what government can do; establishes a framework for the powers of government Establishes people’s rights and what government can’t do o Britain = defined by centuries of tradition Shaped by Parliament
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19 Jan 2007 o Constituency: People you support (district. E.g. Tony Blair –
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Britain - 19 Jan 2007 England Standard for Democracy UK...

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